There is immense potential of biomass energy in Southeast Asia due to plentiful supply of diverse forms of biomass wastes including agricultural residues, agro-industrial wastes, woody biomass, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, etc. Southeast Asia is a big producer of wood and agricultural products which, when processed in industries, produces large amounts of biomass residues.
The rapid economic growth and industrialization in Southeast Asian region is characterized by a significant gap between energy supply and demand. The energy demand in the region is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years which will have a profound impact on the global energy market. In addition, the region has many locations with high population density, which makes public health vulnerable to the pollution caused by fossil fuels.
Another important rationale for transition from fossil-fuel-based energy systems to renewable ones arises out of observed and projected impacts of climate change. Due to the rising share of greenhouse gas emissions from Asia, it is imperative on all Asian countries to promote sustainable energy to significantly reduce GHGs emissions and foster sustainable energy trends. Rising proportion of greenhouse gas emissions is causing large-scale ecological degradation, particularly in coastal and forest ecosystems, which may further deteriorate environmental sustainability in the region.
The reliance on conventional energy sources can be substantially reduced as the Southeast Asian region is one of the leading producers of biomass resources in the world. Southeast Asia, with its abundant biomass resources, holds a strategic position in the global biomass energy atlas.
Palm kernel shells is an abundant biomass resource in Southeast Asia
According to conservative estimates, the amount of biomass residues generated from sugar, rice and palm oil mills is more than 200-230 million tons per year which corresponds to cogeneration potential of 16-19 GW. Woody biomass is a good energy resource due to presence of large number of forests and wood processing industries in the region.
The prospects of biogas power generation are also high in the region due to the presence of well-established food processing, agricultural and dairy industries. Another important biomass resource is contributed by municipal solid wastes in heavily populated urban areas.
In addition, there are increasing efforts from the public and private sectors to develop biomass energy systems for efficient biofuel production, e.g. biodiesel and bioethanol. The rapid economic growth and industrialization in Southeast Asia has accelerated the drive to implement the latest biomass energy technologies in order to tap the unharnessed potential of biomass resources, thereby making a significant contribution to the regional energy mix.
The concept of biomass energy is still in its infancy in most parts of the world, but nevertheless, it does have an important role to play in terms of sustainability in general and net-zero buildings in particular. Once processed, biomass is a renewable source of energy that has amazing potential. But there is a lot of work to be done to exploit even a fraction of the possibilities that would play a significant role in providing our homes and commercial buildings with renewable energy.
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), only about 5% of the total primary energy usage in the U.S. comes from biomass fuels. So there really is a way to go.
The Concept of Biomass Energy
Generally regarded as any carbon-based material including plants, food waste, industrial waste, reclaimed woody materials, algae, and even human and animal waste, biomass is processed to produce effective organic fuels.
The main sources of biomass include wood mills and furniture factories, landfill sites, horticultural centers, wastewater treatment plants, and areas where invasive and alien tree and grass species grow.
Whether converted into biogas or liquid biofuels, or burned as is, the biomass releases its chemical energy in the form of heat. Of course, it depends on what kind of material the biomass is. For instance, solid types including wood and suitable garbage can be burned without any need for processing. This makes up more than half the biomass fuels used in the U.S. Other types can be converted into biodiesel and ethanol.
Biogas forms naturally in landfills when yard waste, food scraps, paper and so on decompose. It is composed mainly of carbon dioxide
Biogas can also be produced by processing animal manure and human sewage in digesters.
Biodiesel is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils including soybeans and palm oil.
Ethanol is made from various crops including sugar cane and corn that are fermented.
How Biomass Fuels Are Used
Ethanol has been used in vehicles for decades and ethanol-gasoline blends are now quite common. In fact, some racing drivers opt for high ethanol blends because they lower costs and improve quality. While the percentage of ethanol is substantially lower, it is now found in most gasoline sold in the U.S. Biodiesel can also be used in vehicles and it is also used as heating oil.
But in terms of their role in net-zero buildings:
Biomass waste is burned to heat buildings and to generate electricity.
In addition to being converted to liquid biofuels, various waste materials including some crops like sugar cane and corn can also be burned as fuel.
Garbage, in the form of yard, food, and wood waste, can be converted to biogas in landfills and anaerobic digesters. It can also be burned to generate electricity.
Human sewage and animal manure can be converted to biogas and burned as heating fuel.
Biomass as a Viable Clean Energy Source for Net-Zero Energy Buildings
Don’t rely on what I say, let’s look at some research, specifically, a study published just last year (2018) that deals with the development of net-zero energy buildings in Florida. It looked at the capacity of biomass, geothermal, hydrokinetic, hydropower, marine, solar, and wind power (in alphabetical order) to deliver renewable energy resources. More specifically, the study evaluated Florida’s potential to utilize various renewable energy resources.
Generating electricity from wind isn’t feasible in Florida because the average wind speeds are slow. The topography and hydrology requirements are inadequate and both hydrokinetic and marine energy resources are limited. But both solar and biomass offer “abundant resources” in Florida. Unlike most other renewable resources, the infrastructure and equipment required are minimal and suitable for use within building areas, and they are both compatible with the needs of net-zero energy.
The concept of net-zero buildings has, of course, been established by the World Green Building Council (GBC), which has set timelines of 2030 and 2050 respectively for new and all buildings to achieve net-zero carbon goals. Simplistically, what this means is that buildings, including our homes, will need to become carbon neutral, using only as much renewable energy as they can produce on site.
But nothing is simplistic when it comes to net-zero energy buildings (ZEB) ). Rather, different categories offer different boundaries in terms of how renewable energy strategies are utilized. These show that net-zero energy buildings are not all the same:
ZEB A buildings utilize strategies within the building footprint
ZEB B within the site of the property
ZEB C within the site but from off-site resources
ZEB D generate renewable energy off-site
While solar works for ZEB A and both solar and wind work for ZEB B buildings, biomass and biofuels are suitable for ZEB C and D buildings, particularly in Florida.
Even though this particular study is Florida-specific, it indicates the probability that the role of biomass energy will ultimately be limited, but that it can certainly help buildings reach a net-zero status.
There will be different requirements and benefits in different areas, but certainly professionals offering engineering solutions in Chicago, New York, London (Canada and the UK), and all the other large cities in the world will be in a position to advise whether it is feasible to use biomass rather than other forms of eco-friendly energy for specific buildings.
Biomass might offer a more powerful solution than many people imagine.
Biodiesel, a petroleum-based diesel alternative produced by transesterification, works as efficiently as the commercially sold diesel and hardly requires any changes in the engine. For those who don’t know, biodiesel can be produced using any oil derived from plants such as soybean oil, cottonseed oil, canola oil, etc. or from animal fats, like beef tallow and chicken tallow.
Over the past five years, due to the spike in fuel prices, people have started moving towards energy independence and have started small private biodiesel production units. According to reports, biodiesel made from useless tires could solve fuel security problems. Tires are a big problem as they create a lot of waste. We can turn this waste into useful oil and help not only the environment but also the economy.
This should not come as a surprise, safety rules are necessary to avoid the contamination of soil and water resources, fires, and personal poisoning.
Vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion requires methanol and lye. Both these chemicals are extremely dangerous since they are not only inflammable but can also cause neurological damage in case of excessive exposure.
A number of biodiesel related accidents and fires have been reported over the last few years. The incidents were a result of pure neglect. Some of the safety measures you should never forget to take are:
Don’t process inside your house.
Don’t keep any oily rags in the vicinity, they are the main source of spontaneous combustion leading to huge fires.
Don’t use paint stirrers or drills to mix up the biodiesel. It can cause a fire.
Don’t use blenders to make test batches, the ingredients can react with rubber seals.
All hazardous and dangerous products should be kept in an approved metal fire cabinet when not in use.
2. Environmental Regulations and Feedstock Collection
Currently, non-commercial and small-scale biodiesel production areas are not subjected to regulations by the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). However, if complaints or problems arise due to your biodiesel product, your plant might be subjected to discretionary enforcement. Moreover, you’ll need approval if you wish to increase the size of the production unit.
The disposal of by-products, on the other hand, requires the approval of the PADEP and should be done based on the latest guidelines. These guidelines can be obtained from your local Department of Environmental Protection.
Apart from following the rules and regulations, the availability of feedstock is crucial for the process.
One gallon of biodiesel requires at least one gallon of feedstock oil. To reduce production costs and to prevent food for fuel conflict, using inedible oils as a major source for biodiesel production is advised.
Usually, feedstock and feedstock oil are difficult to obtain, hence pre-planning is the key to produce the required amount of biodiesel on a regular basis. The collection and transportation of feedstock including used cooking oils are regulated by PADEP.
3. Time Commitment and Cost Requirements
New users usually underestimate the time requirements for proper and regular biodiesel production. While planning your biodiesel plant, make sure you allocate enough time to maintaining the equipment since improper maintenance lead to accidents. Feedstock collection and fuel processing also require a lot of time.
Other time-consuming tasks include handling and securing chemicals, air drying and water washing the fuel, testing the duel quality, and disposing of by-products.
Even though the cost requirements per gallon of biodiesel fuel process are much lower than the commercially sold diesel, there are a few things you need to take into consideration beforehand.
A detailed analysis of input costs versus the resultant value of fuel produced needs to be performed. The analysis should also include labor costs.
Investment in equipment and facility, feedstock transport and acquisition, chemicals, energy used and by-product disposal costs need to be accounted for as well.
4. Handling and Disposing By-products
During the production process, a considerable amount of crude glycerol is produced. Other processors that use water for biodiesel purification produced two gallons of waste for every gallon of biodiesel.
Handling this amount of waste can be taxing. It needs to be compliant with the PADEP rules and regulations. This not only requires more time but capital as well.
The crude glycerol by-product has 25 percent methanol as well as some hazardous waste. Converting it into marketable glycerin is not feasible on a small-scale since the evaporation of methanol cannot be contained.
The land application of methanol and glycerol are prohibited by PADEP. The disposal options from crude glycerol including methanol are:
Disposing of in a landfill.
You have to get special permission from PADEP for all the above processes.
5. Fuel Quality and Storage
Commercial testing of the fuel quality can rip you off since one batch can cost anything between $1000 and $1500. However, simpler fuel testing techniques like sediment testing, methanol testing, water content, viscosity, and cloud point testing can help you find a rough estimate of how good or bad the fuel is. These tests can also help you in finding what needs to be improved during the production process.
To store the fuel, use proper, biodiesel approved and rubber free containers. Using in-line filters while pumping the fuel in storage containers is the best practice. Usually, biodiesel produces use of 10-micron water-blocking filter or a 1-micron filter.
Petroleum approved containers also work well for storing biodiesel. Once in containers, the fuel should be kept in a dry, clean, and dark environment.
If you plan on storing the fuel for a longer time, using algaecide or fungicide additive is recommended since biodiesel is an organic liquid. Also, during cold seasons, the fuel gels, hence, blending in petroleum or anti-gelling additive is pretty important.
For best engine performance, you must use it within six months. If you can, limit the storage time to 3 months in warm and humid weather since the fuel can develop algae or fungus.
Southeast Asia, with its abundant bioenergy resources, holds a strategic position in the global biomass energy atlas. There is immense biomass energy potential in Southeast Asian countries due to plentiful supply of diverse forms of biomass wastes, such as agricultural residues, woody biomass, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, etc. The rapid economic growth and industrialization in the region has accelerated the drive to implement the latest waste-to-energy technologies to tap the unharnessed potential of biomass resources.
Southeast Asia is a big producer of agricultural and wood products which, when processed in industries, produces large amounts of biomass residues. According to conservative estimates, the amount of biomass residues generated from sugar, rice and palm oil mills is more than 200-230 million tons per year which corresponds to cogeneration potential of 16-19 GW.
Rice mills in the region produce 38 million tonnes of rice husk as solid residue which is a good fuel for producing heat and power. Sugar industry is an integral part of the industrial scenario in Southeast Asia accounting for 7% of sugar production worldwide. Sugar mills in Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam generate 34 million tonnes of bagasse every year. Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand account for 90% of global palm oil production leading to the generation of 27 million tonnes of waste per annum in the form of empty fruit bunches (EFBs), fibers and shells, as well as liquid effluent.
Woody biomass is a good energy resource due to presence of large number of forests in Southeast Asia. Apart from natural forests, non-industrial plantations of different types (e.g. coconut, rubber and oil palm plantations, fruit orchards, and trees in homesteads and gardens) have gained recognition as important sources of biomass. In addition, the presence of a large number of wood processing industries also generates significant quantity of wood wastes. The annual production of wood wastes in the region is estimated to be more than 30 million m3.
The prospects of biogas power generation are also high in the region, thanks to presence of well-established food-processing and dairy industries. Another important biomass resource is contributed by municipal solid wastes in heavily populated urban areas. In addition, there are increasing efforts both commercially and promoted by governments to develop biomass energy systems for efficient biofuel production, e.g. bio-diesel from palm oil.
Biomass resources, particularly residues from forests, wood processing, agricultural crops and agro-processing, are under-utilised in Southeast Asian countries. There is an urgent need to utilize biomass wastes for commercial electricity and heat production to cater to the needs of the industries as well as urban and rural communities.
Southeast Asian countries are yet to make optimum use of the additional power generation potential from biomass waste resources which could help them to partially overcome the long-term problem of energy supply. Technologies for biomass utilization which are at present widely used in Southeast counties need to be improved towards best practice by making use of the latest trends in the biomass energy sector.
Of all the things we want our homes to provide, comfort is usually at the top of the list. In addition to the beauty and usability of the home, comfort also includes the ability to maintain a comfortable temperature, to keep the air clean and healthy, and to provide safety for your family. The most popular technique for accomplishing all these goals is the use of fiberglass insulation. It has become so widespread that you may be wondering if it is still the best choice on the market, or if it’s simply being used out of habit.
Like any other decision for your home, the choice of insulation materials is an important one that you should consider carefully, so you may be asking a simple question: Is fiberglass the best choice for insulation, or could cellulose or other materials be a better option?
The answer is clear. Contractors and homeowners use fiberglass insulation more because it is the best material for home insulation. Here are six benefits of fiberglass that allow it to excel where other materials fall short.
The primary purpose of insulation is to increase comfort and reduce energy costs by maintaining the desired temperature inside the home, but it provides soundproofing benefits as well. A properly insulated home will have less noise coming in from the outside as well as less noise moving between rooms.
Fiberglass is much more effective at dampening sound than any other material on the market. Reducing sound transfer is important when you live near busy roads or have young children who need quiet sleep time while the rest of the family is still awake, and fiberglass is the best material for those functions and more.
Natural plant fibers used in insulation are touted for being renewable, and it is true that new plants can be grown each year to manufacture the product. However, insulation made from fiberglass uses a high percentage of recycled material. The recycled content reduces the need to manufacture additional fiberglass while also eliminating the need to dedicate more crop ground and farming resources to the production of source plants for cellulose.
Perhaps the greatest benefit of fiberglass in the insulation world is its ability to contain fire. Cellulose is a plant-based product, making it a potential fuel in case of fire. Fiberglass itself is fire-resistant, providing a barrier to the spread of fire that increases the time available for your family to escape while minimizing the amount of damage done to your home.
Firefighters can testify to the simplicity of extinguishing a fire near fiberglass as opposed to one that spreads into cellulose blown-in insulation. The fire travels further, does more damage, and requires greater cleanup than fiberglass.
Fiberglass batts are perhaps the easiest product to install in a home construction or renovation project. They are manufactured in whatever width and thickness is required, and they simply roll out to install in walls, floors, or ceilings. The end result is a faster, cleaner installation. Blown-in cellulose is touted for its versatility in filling any available space, but it is also messier and much more difficult to move out of the way for future repairs or renovations.
Indoor air quality is a topic that is receiving a lot of attention these days. We are all alert to the dangers of breathing harmful molds, yet many of us unwittingly foster the growth of these dangerous substances by using cellulose insulation. In a plant, cellulose is meant to transport water, so it should come as no surprise that it will also retain moisture when used in your home.
Fiberglass does not absorb moisture, speeding the process of drying up any water that may find its way into your walls, floors, or ceilings. This makes for a drier and healthier environment.
Economizing isn’t just about paying less. It’s about getting more value for your dollar. Fortunately, fiberglass does both for you when you are installing insulation. Apart from all the benefits we’ve already discussed, fiberglass costs less. The result is that you get better performance for less money, and that’s getting the best of both worlds with your insulation dollar.
The process of working in your home is full of decisions. Whether you are building a new home, renovating an existing home, or simply doing some upgrades, you may find yourself overwhelmed at the selection of products available for even the simplest steps in the project. Instead of bogging down on the variety of insulation materials, you can make one decision right at the beginning. Choosing fiberglass for your insulation needs will make your home safer, healthier, and more comfortable than any other product can.
Growing interest in renewables is rapidly changing how energy projects are financed in America and around the world.
One of the biggest shifts has been an influx in outside money into the industry in the form of “green financing” — bonds, loans and other assets earmarked for renewable energy projects around the world.
The rise of the green financing market shows how investors are starting to take renewables more seriously — and it could signal a major transformation of the renewable energy market over the next few years.
Green Financing May Accelerate Renewable Energy Projects
Green financing is a catch-all term for investment in financial vehicles related to renewables and other green industries. Assets, bonds and funds related to renewable energy and other green investments make up the green financing market. In recent years, a robust green financing market has become widely viewed as essential to accelerating the development of new renewable energy technology projects.
Green finance is growing fast. In 2012, the sustainable debt market — including “green” and sustainable bonds and loans — was worth only around $10 billion, according to data from BloombergNEF. In 2018, just six years later, the market was worth nearly $250 billion.
Most of these gains came in the form of new green bonds (sometimes also called “climate bonds”), which are fixed-income investments designed to raise money for new renewable energy projects.
The growth of green financing represents a slow but noticeable divestment away from fossil fuels.
The pivot may also represent a change in how businesses are structured. The growing popularity of bonds as an investment vehicle may enable community co-ops rather than corporations to become a more viable business model for renewable energy providers. For example, the Westmill Solar Cooperative in the United Kingdom has raised more than £6 million ($7.94 million) through bonds offered to investors.
While coil, oil and natural gas are likely to remain a good investment in the short-term, the strength of the green financing market does seem like a signal that, over the next 10 to 20 years, non-renewables will become less and less tempting for investors compared to renewable and sustainable investments.
How Green Financing May Change Energy Around the World?
As the green finance market grows, regulators are beginning to codify what counts as a green investment.
These new definitions and regulations may determine which industries receive major funding and which are left out of the green financing boom.
Nuclear energy, for example, is generally not regarded as renewable energy, but is sometimes considered sustainable. Nuclear power plants generate waste, but they also produce zero emissions, unlike fossil fuel-fired power plants.
Natural gas is also not considered renewable or sustainable, as it is a fossil fuel and produces significant carbon emissions when burned for power. However, some proponents of the energy source argue that it should be considered sustainable, as it produces significantly less carbon dioxide than similar fossil fuels.
In 2019, EU regulators reached a deadlock over whether or not nuclear and natural gas power plants should count as sustainable investments. In a final compromise, EU lawmakers ruled that both nuclear and natural gas projects were neither included nor excluded in the definition of sustainable by default. Instead, projects would need to prove that they “do no harm” on a case-by-case basis.
Similar rulings and legal challenges could shape the future of energy as governments around the world grapple with the challenge of shifting away from fossil fuels.
A Coming Sustainable Energy Revolution
The rise of the green finance market may change what alternative energy looks like around the world. Legal debates over what should count as “renewable” or “sustainable” may affect which projects receive funding, while bonds and loans may make community cooperatives that provide renewable energy more practical.
As fossil fuels become less attractive to investors and the renewable energy market grows, green financing is likely to have major impacts on the future of renewables.
The waste management hierarchy suggests that reduce, reuse and recycling should always be given preference in a typical waste management system. However, these options cannot be applied uniformly for all kinds of wastes. For examples, food waste is quite difficult to deal with using the conventional 3R strategy.
Of the different types of organic wastes available, food waste holds the highest potential in terms of economic exploitation as it contains high amount of carbon and can be efficiently converted into biogas and organic fertilizer.
There are numerous places which are the sources of large amounts of food waste and hence a proper food waste management strategy needs to be devised for them to make sure that either they are disposed off in a safe manner or utilized efficiently. These places include hotels, restaurants, malls, residential societies, college/school/office canteens, religious mass cooking places, communal kitchens, airline caterers, food and meat processing industries and vegetable markets which generate food residuals of considerable quantum on a daily basis.
The anaerobic digestion technology is highly apt in dealing with the chronic problem of food waste management in urban societies. Although the technology is commercially viable in the longer run, the high initial capital cost is a major hurdle towards its proliferation.
The onus is on the governments to create awareness and promote such technologies in a sustainable manner. At the same time, entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations and environmental agencies should also take inspiration from successful food waste-to-energy projects in Western countries and try to set up such facilities in cities and towns.
Everybody knows that college is not just about long lessons, wise teachers and interesting acquaintances. Sometimes it’s get harder to be in a harmonious and amicable mood when everything starts to fall apart, and students are trying to fix it but at the same time making the situation much worse.
The most common reasons of stress in college are as follows:
Different conflict situations with teachers and other students;
Huge lack of sleep and ineptitude to manage time;
Getting low grades and not completed homework and tasks;
Fears of the unknown and uncertain future;
Large amount of educational materials to study;
Difference between expectations and reality of chosen profession;
Intensive mental activity with a huge quantity of information.
There are some ways and tips how to live without stress at college, which can help you tackle with stressful situations by yourself.
1. Think about your time management
Try to do all the complicated lessons first and don’t leave your homework until midnight. Start with compiling a task list every week. Write down at least three important, short-term goals that you want to achieve. No matter what kind of your goals are, stick to them and do your best to achieve them! You can do more and you will feel better without delaying things “later”. Make small changes in your life and self-organization —find a place for each thing. Self-pity is a waste of time.
2. Acquire colorful and bright stationery
It will always make you smile in any way. Notebooks with your favorite flowers or animals will bring you peaceful mood and it will help you to be concentrated on pleasant thoughts. Buy some nice pens, pencils and other stationery and you will feel the difference and motivation to do something with these cute things.
3. Eat only healthy and wholesome food
“We literally are what we eat”, says chief editor at Pro-Papers. If you feel stressed, instead of reaching a pack of biscuits or the nearest fast-food chain restaurant, try to eat something healthy and it will help you manage the stress.
For example, avocado and bananas are loaded with potassium, a vital mineral which can keep blood pressure within normal parameters. Feeling low? Eat some almonds, pistachios or walnuts and your immune system will be boosted by vitamins and zinc!
4. Sleep well, at least 8 hours per night
Lack of sleep can cause bad mood, concentration problems and a general severe fatigue. It also affects our ability to perceive and memorize information, which can cause a strong stress when you have to learn a lot. If you have good sleep, it increases your attention, self-confidence, memory, social skills, and appetite. Use a weighted blanket in order to reduce stress and anxiety.
5. Think of your new hobbies
Do you know the best way to put an end to all the stressful situations? Knitting and painting increases the activity of the prefrontal cortex and improve your creativity skills. Scientists have found that gardening improves mental health and physical health, as well as reduced levels of depression.
Cooking is a rather meditative exercise and a great way to deal with stress. Everything that you need to do — is to find your own hobby and get the benefits from it!
6. Listening to peaceful music
Music not only affects our mood, but also inspires, relieves stress, calms and even heals. Gentle music with a harmonic tune will help reduce the level of the stress hormone cortisol, which causes damage to our mind and body. Just turn on the new album of your favorite band and start relaxing after nervous day at college.
7. Go to shopping
Sometimes all we need to feel happy is a new dress or new sneakers, isn’t it? According to psychologists, shopping is one of the most effective ways to help relieve depression.
The main thing is not to get nervous about some little things. It’s undeniable that these little things cause a serious stressful condition which is too destructive for our nervous system and mental health. Avoid contact with people who are sources of negative emotions, thoughts, moods. If you think, “I will never finish on time,” stop thinking that way. Better imagine your success — visualize how you will feel, shaking the hand of your professor, how he says that you have done a great and important job.
Your hard work will pay off as soon as you leave the tears and regrets behind you. Do not accumulate anger and negative, make a decision, shake off the burden of negative emotions and go on. When you arrange your priorities properly, you will become more organized and have your stress relieved by focusing more on your success. Only then, you are likely to become a confident student for whom studying is just a piece of cake.
Australia is famous the whole world over for its incredible scenery and stunning countryside, from the arid yet beautiful outback to the shimmering sands of the Gold Coast, but the country is also home to some of the world’s favourite cities. Australia’s population is growing, and so urban development and planning is becoming ever more important. The way we plan, design and build our urban centres has changed rapidly over the last decades thanks to evolving needs, environmental concerns and rapidly advancing technology.
It is this combination that is helping Australian towns and cities lead the way when it comes to urban generation and regeneration.
More Accurate Surveying
Thorough surveying is the key to successful development, and it was once a laborious and time-consuming process, and therefore by necessity, an expensive one too. One modern invention has transformed this task completely, as the most forward thinking planners now utilise unmanned aerial surveying techniques.
Using the latest high-powered drones, planners and developers can now get a much more accurate and holistic picture of the land that they plan to build on. The highly detailed maps produced from the air allow clients to make more informed decisions quicker than they would otherwise have been able to, thus helping to ensure that projects come in on time and on budget.
Many Australians are becoming increasingly concerned about the effect that mankind is having upon the environment, and the effects of climate change can be seen across this nation and beyond. That’s why surveyors and designers have to be very careful when planning urban developments, as it’s imperative that expanding urban centres don’t adversely impact upon our ecology or the incredible animal life that also calls Australia its home.
Today’s leading urban surveying companies put green issues at the heart of the work, using the latest computer modelling techniques to thoroughly assess the impact of an urban development upon the environment surrounding it; in this way, it’s possible to maintain the equilibrium between the need to develop new urban spaces and the need to protect our ecosystems.
Bringing Greater Benefits to Urban Dwellers
There are many factors to be considered when planning an urban development, as well as the green concerns mentioned above. It’s essential for planners to be able to make accurate assessments of what benefits their development will bring to the people who live within it and upon its neighbourhood, and this involves careful study of a wide range of metrics and projections.
The highly detailed maps produced from the air allow clients to make more informed decisions quicker
Whilst this remains a specialist and highly important job, the appearance of specialist computer programmes now allow planners to make an economic and demographic assessment that’s more accurate than ever before.
Expert urban planners know how essential it is to use all of the technological innovations now available to them, from unmanned aerial surveying, to high tech demographic assessment tools and greener planning software. This is why new urban developments bring benefits for residents and businesses, and for the economy as a whole, while still protecting the rural areas and environment that make Australia the envy of the world.
Dyne Testing is a technology, a method to measure surface wettability. The low surface wettability of polymer-based substrates is the sign of poor adhesion of inks, glues and coatings. Thus, to obtain the optimum amount of adhesive it is necessary to increase the surface energy of the substrate which can be done by surface treatment with either Corona or Plasma. It will result in good wetting of the material over the surface of the substrate and hence, it improves adhesion.
For the optimum adhesion, while printing, gluing, or coating the various substrates, it is necessary to obtain high surface energy which can be obtained by Dyne Testing Markers. The fluid that is present in the Dyne Testing markers is based on ISO 8296 method for measuring the surface energy of polythene film.
When the Dyne Testing Pens are being applied to the surface, the liquid will form a continues film or will form a small trail of droplets. If it is being stretched as a film for at least 3 seconds, the substrate will have a minimum surface energy of that ink value which will be expressed in mN/m (Dynes).
The exact surface energy (Dyne level) can be determined by applying a range of increasing or decreasing values of Dyne test pens thereby taking the steps to improve its condition.
The Dyne Test Pen may lose its accuracy for which there are 3 reasons:
It could get contaminated with the foreign substance
It could evaporate quicker than it is expected to be
And the third reason is ageing, during which chemical reactions take place among the constituents.
The experts have also faced the problem with the ageing of Dyne Testing Equipment. If their hue or color density are almost past their expiration date, it is advisable to replace them as stated by experts. The lower Dyne value states that the value stated on the bottle does not match true surface tension. You must be sure that retains the substrate used for the measurements are to be kept well sealed, free from contamination, and stored under laboratory conditions.
The ideal Dyne Testing Pen should be:
easy to handle,
perfect for the quick spot checks on the production floor,
very easy to read,
no subjectivity for this type of test,
no wiping off necessary,
lasting display of result, and
very striking coloring.
The Dyne Testing Kit is based on valve tip applicator and not the magic marker type. The quick test 38 pen is our most popular product amongst all and it is available in a bright red ink. This is the quick test pen which serves to check the surface treatment of all plastic substrates.
It has a shown an effect onto the material such that a stroke of the pens leaves a full line on the material if the material’s surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm. Also, as mentioned above if the materials surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm, the fluid will form small drops on the surface. The fluid applied to the surface will dry within seconds; it does not need to be wiped off anymore.
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