4 Tips To Prevent System Failures At Remote Power Plants

Every day, power plants are tasked with producing enough power to keep homes and businesses running. Remote power plants can be particularly difficult because they’re often located in areas where it’s hard to find qualified workers. These plants tend to fail at an alarmingly high rate due to system failures. Luckily there are methods you can do to help prevent this from happening.  If successful, it will help you save time and money as well as improve efficiency in the long run.

Read more to know about the four tips you can apply to ensure your system is running at peak performance.

Tips To Prevent System Failures At Remote Power Plants

1. Maintain Your Power Equipment And Systems

You should maintain your equipment and system regularly to ensure they’re running properly. Inspect your entire systems such as generators, switches, surge suppressors, and other equipment for signs of wear or damage every few months. This will allow you to catch any problems before they cause real issues.  These concerns may include downtimes, thus costing a lot of lost revenue per hour.

You could also schedule preventative maintenance at least once a year. This ensures everything is repaired correctly the first time around. These repairs may include fixing broken parts and replacing frayed wire insulation that’s about to fail. A power plant asset management software will help to keep your system running at top performance.

Also, ensure all system components are secure in their foundations, so there is no risk of movement over time. This can cause damage or disconnections during use.  Thus, check your inverter’s health for signs of failure or damage, especially if it has more than six years of use.

This is an essential task because the last thing you want to deal with during an emergency is downtime due to something as simple and preventable as failing equipment. Some ways to check your inverter include taking measurements, checking system parameters like pressure and temperature, etc.

2. Install A Battery Backup System

Not only will this keep you up and running during an outage, but it can also help prevent future failures. For example, your system was experiencing frequent inverter failures every time there’s a storm. If you have a battery backup in place, it will keep the power on until the storm passes.  Thus, you don’t lose any data or equipment due to this issue.

3. Keep The Plant Clean And Free Of Debris

The most common cause of failure in remote power plants is the weather on systems and equipment over time. A buildup of dust can insulate wires enough to reduce voltage output and corrode metal components that are essential for making electricity. This will result in costly downtime or even complete system failures.  Cleaning your facilities, like the air intake and exhaust ports, could keep everything running at peak performance.

On the other hand, some ways you can keep your facility free of debris include ensuring walkways surrounding equipment are clear.  This is so workers can access everything they need without stumbling around hazardous areas. You must be sure to remove any rocks or other items lying around since these could fall onto machinery if there’s an earthquake or storm and severely damage it.

Also, you must regularly check for rust or corrosion on metal equipment. This is especially important if you live in a particularly wet area since this can cause severe damage with time.

4. Have A Plan In Case Of Emergencies

If an emergency does occur, having a plan in place will guarantee you’re ready to handle it quickly and appropriately. Having spare parts on hand could make repairs immediately with no delays. This is important for ensuring uninterrupted power and avoiding further damage or accidents caused by faulty equipment.

decarbonize global energy system

Also, train all your staff members on safely operating any machinery involved and what procedures to take if anything goes wrong. This will ensure that workers can act quickly and correctly in an emergency. Thus, they don’t need too much time figuring out how things work, which could cost valuable minutes.

Another plan includes having a backup power source ready just in case your main one fails for any reason. Even if your generator is still working, a backup system will keep you from losing power again during the downtime of switching to a new system.

Conclusion

As you’ve read, there are several ways to prevent system failures for remote power plants. You must understand how these systems work and what causes them to fail so you can protect your customers from blackouts.

5 Eco-Friendly Home Decor Ideas

Global warming is one of the most discussed issues of the present times. Our planet is facing a crisis, and hence, we are all in the midst of danger. However, we have not reached the dead-end yet. So, there is so much that we can still do to save mother earth. The individual efforts count the most and can go a long way if everyone decides to play their part.

If you are a creative person who wants to decorate their home while trying to maintain a sustainable lifestyle, you would have noticed how most ways to decorate a house have a big carbon footprint. Don’t worry, you do not have to give up home decor to care for the environment. The following are some eco-friendly decor ideas that are sure to fetch you a ton of compliments on your aesthetic and mindful approach towards the environment.

green-decor-tips

Inculcate Houseplants

Who does not love greenery? It is the best way to stay close to nature while staying indoors. In the modern lifestyle, our living spaces are becoming more cramped than ever. Plus, not everyone is lucky enough to have a green bed of twenty-five cubic yards. However, that does not mean that you have to live without a touch of nature.

The easiest way to do so is by cultivating houseplants. It can be done pretty much anywhere and placing them in gorgeous bottles and containers can amplify the appeal. If you plan on adding a lot of houseplants, make sure to get high-quality glass containers from a trusted glass bottles manufacturer.

Go Vintage

The old school décor has been making rounds again. So, this is the perfect time to go thrifting and to rummage through your grandma’s stuff. It is one of the best and responsible ways to save money and to recycle old, discarded things lying in your home.

So, to start with, make use of those vintage suitcases that we all have in our attics. Dust them off and with the help of a little DIY, you can turn them into a table. Attach wooden dowels to the painted suitcase to turn it into a side-table. The fact that you did not have to buy anything new, and didn’t use any fuel to go to the supermarket, gives this DIY a small carbon footprint.

Make Use of Old Textbooks

When you are in the process of redecorating your space, it sounds quite tempting to get rid of everything that has not served you its purpose in years. But do not throw away your old textbooks. Use them to your advantage because there are plenty of DIYs that you can do.

decor-from-old-books

For instance, renew your old lamp by pasting some old pages on your lampshade and stack some books under it. Remember, recycling is the first step to ensuring that you do not produce a lot of waste that is harmful to the environment. So, let your creative side shine and up-cycle old items and turn them into decorations.

Make Your Own Scented Candles

Scent and fragrance have been serving us for ages. When your environment smells great, it gives a sudden uplift to your mood. There is nothing better than coming home after a long day, lighting a candle, and feeling the stresses of the day melt away.

But instead of buying your candles or investing in expensive air freshener dispensers, you can make your own scented candles at home. The following are the supplies that you will need for this:

  • A jar
  • Candle Wick
  • Soy Wax
  • Scissors
  • Spoon
  • Measuring Cup
  • Any essential oil

Instructions

  • Measure the wax according to your jar size.
  • Melt it and add a few drops of your favorite essential oil.
  • Hold the candle wick into the jar and carefully pour the melted wax.
  • Wait for the wax to become solid and cut the extra wick that is sticking out.
  • Voila! You have your own organic candle!

Invest in LED Lighting

The idea may sound a little intimidating if you look at the cost but there is nothing that pays off like LED Lighting. The traditional lighting system is a huge source of energy waste, not to mention the massive power that they consume. So, it is an excellent decision to invest in LED lighting and ensure that you are not hurting the environment. So, accessorize your home with some elegant LED Lights, that are not just reliable but also completely eco-friendly.

indoor-gardening-grow-lights

Conclusion

It is truly a domineering task to redecorate your home and to bring novelty to your creativity. To top it all, there is this added pressure of being environmentally responsible. However, if you are determined to contribute to your planet, now is the right time. For starters, just staying conscious about the waste and resources will eventually become your second nature. And soon, you would not have to think twice before taking on a task as daunting as eco-friendly home décor.

7 Crop Health Metrics That Matter to Farmers

Crop health is of paramount importance to farmers; thus, careful and consistent monitoring of crop health is an absolute must. A recent study on coffee yield losses from 2013 to 2015 revealed that pests and diseases led to high primary (26%) and secondary (38%) yield losses in the researcher’s sampled area. This highlights the significance of closely paying attention to such detrimental factors in your crop’s environment. Doing so will ensure maximum yield and profit for farmers come harvest time.

To look at crop health monitoring as governed by just one or two aspects, however, is a serious mistake. Rather, a holistic approach must be adopted; in other words, more factors need to be monitored than just pestilence and disease.

Here are seven of the most important crop health metrics for farmers to monitor, based on the Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) Program’s guidelines.

1. Crop appearance

Perhaps the most obvious indicator of crop health is their general appearance. While not an all-in-one, foolproof method of gauging the current condition of a particular set of crops, a farmer possessing the right tools and knowledge can tell quite a lot from simply looking at the state of his or her plants.

Lightness or discoloration in foliage more often than not points to chlorosis, a state in which plants produce insufficient chlorophyll. Modern methods of crop health monitoring, including new technologies that utilize both near-infrared and visible light, allow farmers to actively and accurately monitor chlorophyll content.

2. Crop growth

Among the indicators of poor crop growth are short branches, sparse stand, and the rarity or absence of new shoots. This, of course, will inevitably affect your total yield in a negative way. Under ideal circumstances, there should be robust growth and dense, uniform stand in your crops.

3. Tolerance or resistance to stress

Simply put, crop stress is a decrease in crop production brought about by external factors. An example would be exposure to excess light and high temperatures, which may disrupt photosynthesis (known as photoinhibition). As a result, crops will have insufficient energy to bear fruit or grow, and may even sustain lasting damage to their membranes, chloroplasts, and cells. Healthy crops are stress-tolerant, and can easily bounce back after being exposed to stressors in their environment.

4. Occurrences of pests and diseases

An indicator that your crops are extremely susceptible to pests and diseases would be if over 50% of the population ends up getting damaged by said factors. Under the right circumstances, less than 20% of your crops would be negatively affected by any invasion of pests or spread of disease, allowing them to easily recuperate and increase in number once more.

Building crop resistance against harmful insects and diseases can be done in a number of ways, including improving crop diversity, crop rotation, using organic pesticides such as Himalayan salt spray and eucalyptus oil, and even genetic research and enhancement.

5. Weed competition and pressure

Apart from insects and plant diseases, weeds can also spell doom for your crops, if left unchecked. In the event that your farm becomes overpopulated with weeds that will steal the nutrients from your crops, you will certainly notice that your crops are steadily dwindling. Healthy crops, on the other hand, would eventually overwhelm the weed population and reclaim dominance over your field.

6. Genetic diversity

To have only one dominant variety of crop in your farm is tantamount to putting your eggs in a single basket. For instance, you should consider the importance of having multiple disease-resistant crop varieties on your farm. Don’t fall prey to the temptation of replacing them entirely with a single, higher-yielding type.

It is essential to build crop resistance against harmful insects and diseases

7. Plant diversity and population

In an ideal setting, there should be more than two species of plants in your field. Counting the actual number of trees or plants across your farm, as well as the naturally occurring vegetation on all sides of the area, can also give you a better perspective on your farm’s overall crop health.

Importance of crop management system

Some farmers become overly reliant on insecticides and other chemicals to eliminate their pest problems — a grievous error, as this will likely lead to even more serious problems. Even the indiscriminate application of mineral fertilizers may inadvertently boost pest populations by making conditions ideal for them to thrive.

Ultimately, a combination of the right knowledge and the proper technology is a must in measuring and monitoring crop health metrics. Farmers must always be aware of the current health of their crops, and must be prepared to address any problems with solutions that don’t end up causing more.

Shedding Light on Non-Destructive Testing with Ultraviolet Lamps

Non-destructive testing (NDT) can be simplistically described as a method used to conduct an inspection without moving or breaking the item or surrounding area under examination. Although not limited to medicine, aerospace, and industry, these three large sectors are particularly dependent on non-destructive inspection methodologies. One of the most helpful tools for NDT is the Ultraviolet (UV) lamp. Let’s take a brief look at the presence of UV lamps in NDT settings.

Non-destructive testing is a broad field

The definition of NDT can be quite broad unless one limits its description to a test, evaluation, or inspection, in a particular field of engineering or medicine. As well, the type of inspection that is required also comes from a long list of possibilities.

Non Destructive Testing

Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Inspection (FMPI or MT) and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI or PT) are strongly associated with the use of fluorescent lighting and NDT.

Let the light come in

UV light is longer than X-rays, and shorter than visible white light, placing it into the 10 to 400 nm wavelength range. Known as black light, non-visible UV light can be harmful. The shorter UV-C rays, up to 290 nm, however, rarely reach the earth, and this is fortunate. Also be wary of UV-B rays, which are responsible for sunburns. The longer rays of UV-A, between 320 and 400 nm, are the least dangerous to humans.

In the past, magnetic particle penetrants used a mercury base, which became fluorescent with a UV-A light of 365.4 nm. This led to the requirement of today’s UV light sources for NDT. The standard requirement for a peak wavelength is between 360 – 370 mm.

The UV lamp advantage

One aspect of UV lighting that gives it the edge is that it provides visibility into the area under inspection where otherwise, there is none. The magnetic particles or penetrants that are applied to the surfaces of the areas to be inspected become fluorescent, providing visibility into the tiniest of flaws, such as cracks, breaks, and positioning changes.

What to look for in a UV lamp

There are UV lamps and then there are UV lamps. To achieve the most efficient, successful, and safe examinations, it is important to choose the correct UV lamp for the task at hand.

LED illumination

UV LED lamps are highly recommended for non-destructive testing. In fact, for the most part, LED lamps have replaced incandescent and fluorescent lamps, which may not be easily available in the near future.

UV Lamp

However, some legacy UV lamps can be modified to accept LED bulbs. UV LED lamps are lighter, making them very manageable. The bulbs are long-lasting, not prone to fading, and can be housed in cooler casings.

Handheld or stationary

The advantage of handheld UV LED lamps is, of course, their portability and their low energy consumption. However, unlike their predecessors, the mercury vapor bulbs, they do not offer the intensity and the wide beams that are required in some inspections.

Meeting the challenge, some UV lamp producers are using LED lighting to create stationary overhead lamps with intense, wide beam coverage, and adaptable frames, allowing easy vigilance over production in assembly lines. This is a low-cost alternative to frequently-replaced fluorescent bulbs.

The importance of a filter

With a peak wavelength between 360 – 370 nm, violet tail emissions of visible light above 400 nm can mask flaws and cracks with light glare. A filter improves visibility by providing more contrast.

Additional considerations

Science and engineering are always in flux. Similarly, developments in the field of non-destructive testing brings with it much to consider.

  • With the introduction of LED bulbs in UV light sources, dangers resulting from potential accidents in non-invasive fault-seeking, are no longer concerns. Burns resulting from filaments in mercury vapor are becoming a thing of the past. With less electrical demands from LED bulbs, power supplies can be lightweight, making the lamp easier to handle in tough conditions.
  • Just the fact that mercury will no longer be needed is enough of a cause for celebration.
  • Visibility with LED lamps is instantaneous.
  • For some conditions, a narrower beam is required. NDT requirements must lead the way when determining the lamp’s specifications for a particular type of inspection.
  • One challenge that designers are working on is the emission of heat flux at the emitters of UV LED lamps. This is a result of smaller technology with increased energy levels.

Non-destructive testing has broadened its scope over the years, giving rise to compliance standards for specific NDT applications. The most well-known compliance standard to look for in UV-A lamps for NDT with FMPI and FPI, is the ASTM E3022 standard. Whatever the standards of compliance are for a particular industry, non-destructive testing and its reliance on dependable lighting for inspections, is now an important branch of engineering in its own right.

Top Reasons Why Popularity of Bitcoin is Getting on its Peak

The popularity of the cryptocurrency market has already passed the market of critical psychology. It is proven to be great that it is continually offering so many benefits to investors.  There are a lot of companies out there that are continually investing money in bitcoin. Bitcoin has become the leading cryptocurrency, and the price of it is continually rising.

If you want to invest money in bitcoin, you will have to pay close attention to various important things. Lots of retail investors, famous billionaire investors and large institutions are continually investing money in it. Therefore, it would be better to start with Bitcoin payments that has become one of the most popular trading platforms to help you buy and sell bitcoin. Here are a few things that you need to consider before investing money in bitcoin.

Reasons Why Popularity Of Bitcoin Is Getting On Its Peak

Limited supply

You will find different kinds of assets out there that are already considered a store of value. The most popular and common asset that comes to mind is expensive metals like gold or anything that comes with a limited supply.

Bitcoin is also similar to gold with a limited supply and offers considerable benefits to investors. If you also want to invest money in bitcoin, you will always need a steadier financial plan like a genuine portfolio of low-cost index funds that will benefit you.

Accepting in business

No doubt, the world has become a highly digital play.  Trading has already been possible via an electronic payment system. Moreover, online trading is being possible via payment services. Cryptocurrencies are continually getting popular that are continually following a person-to-person system and always use a primary medium of exchange. Moreover, blockchain technology is always used in various cryptocurrencies that use cryptography to create new units and protect transactions easily.

Cryptocurrencies are considered one of the best alternatives to conventional currencies as these are continually following a decentralized network. If you are a beginner in the world of bitcoin, then it is your responsibility to invest a considerable amount of time in research and learn everything about it. Make sure that you are making a genuine decision.

Popularity of cryptocurrencies

Just like conventional cryptocurrencies, bitcoin also comes with a value. The bitcoin market is entirely volatile, and the value of such an incredible cryptocurrency keeps on fluctuating. The main reason such significant cryptocurrency’s value is skyrocketing is just because of pervasive usage across the world.

bitcoin-cash

Most individuals and businesses are continually using bitcoin as a primary payment method instead of conventional currencies. In addition, many consumers are continually using such fantastic cryptocurrency just because of higher convenience and higher safety & security.

Make A Genuine Decision

You will find cryptocurrencies like bitcoin are continually gaining massive popularity because many companies and businesses are continually accepting bitcoin in their businesses as a primary payment method. Through this, trading has become entirely possible & more accessible for a person. You will find many people are continually choosing the businesses, real estate businesses and coffee shops that can accept bitcoin payments. Make sure that you are paying close attention to the value of bitcoin and its growth rate.

According to the professionals, the value of such an incredible cryptocurrency will surely increase as lots of businesses and retailers are continually accepting it as a primary payment method. If you don’t want to face any complicated problems in the future, then you should invest wisely.

Cheap, easy and quick transaction

Bitcoin has become one of the significant cryptocurrencies that aren’t dependent on any bank & central authority. The best thing about bitcoin is that you will not have to pay a higher transaction fee if you transfer to others.

For example, suppose you are transferring funds via banks internationally. In that case, the bank will charge huge charges like transaction fees from both receiver and sender that take many days to complete a specific transaction. However, suppose you are transferring funds via bitcoin. In that case, it can be quite a more straightforward process because it takes a few minutes to complete a particular transaction, and you don’t have to pay a higher fee for the transaction.

5 Interesting Facts About Waste-to-Energy Projects

Waste-to-energy (also known as energy-from-waste) is a complicated technology in the realm of renewable energy. There are a lot of hidden truths and myths about this technology that people need to be aware of. Renewable energy technologies, like solar and wind, have much more simple processes and gain most of the attention from media outlets.

On the converse, renewable energy sources that are highly complex like nuclear energy have a bunch of media attention as well.

So, why don’t we discuss a bit more about this relatively unknown technology and asset class? Here I’ll discuss a number of the most important facts about waste-to-energy (abbreviated as WTE).

Interesting Facts About Waste-to-Energy

Let’s get into our facts about waste-to-energy that you need to know.

1. Waste-to-Energy Can Provide Baseload Power

The most familiar renewable energy resources such as wind and solar can only provide power if the sun is shining or the wind is blowing. WTE projects can actually provide baseload power that is used to serve consumers and the grid no matter the time of day or if the sun is shining or not.

Baseload power is essentially when intermittent resources like solar and wind become more prevalent.

2. Not All WTE Projects are Clean and Green

While waste-to-energy projects would seem to be green and clean because they turn trash into power or gas. However, some projects require long hauling of trash to bring to the actual incineration facility. This actually ends up require much more emissions from the trash haulers than alternatives.

One solution to this would be to help promote the use of electric vehicles and electric vehicle technology to be installed in trucking, like waste hauling.

3. WTE Projects Can Reduce Use of Landfills

Landfills have increased at an exponential pace the in last 100 years. Waste-to-energy projects are an awesome alternative to landfills as the trash is used to provide electricity or fuel.

WTE projects reduce waste volumes by approximately 90%, which results in fewer landfills that are needed to process ash. This ends up protecting our natural resources and land in a dramatic fashion.

5. WTE Projects have Multiple Revenue Streams

Waste-to-energy projects are extremely complicated and expensive to build. Most of the investor economic interest is driven by financial incentives, renewable identification numbers, tax credits, etc. to help these projects get financed.

Beyond these other financial incentives, some of the waste-to-energy projects produce a byproduct, named biochar, which has multiple applications and fetches good prices. The biochar can usually end up providing the most value in the revenue stream or investability of the project itself.

In addition to other economic streams, waste-to-energy projects usually require high tipping fees. A tipping fee is what the trash hauler has to pay in order to dump the trash at the facility. With WTE projects, the tipping fee can end up being 50-60% of the overall revenue stack.

5. WTE Facilities are Net Greenhouse Gas Reducers

Methane has more than 20 times the potency of carbon dioxide and is ranked as a very dangerous contributor to climate change and warming of our planet. WTE facilities avoid the productions of methane and end up producing up to 10 times more the electricity than landfill gas projects. If you didn’t know, landfills can actually end up producing electricity by capture the methane gas and compressing it into a consumable natural gas for power.

Sysav–WTE-plant-Sweden

Sweden is one of the best proponents of waste-to-energy in the world

WTE projects will usually have much more capacity than any landfill gas projects.

Conclusions

You can’t use waste-to-energy projects at your home similar to solar or even wind to get free electricity. However, knowing about projects in your area and the relevant suppliers will help you understand whether or not the technology is a perfect fit for your community. If you see a project coming online in your surrounding area, you should know how to ask the right questions.

At the end of the day, WTE projects are green and clean. They just need to have the right systems in place to make them more efficient and less risky to appeal new investor appetite. What fact was your favorite about waste-to-energy?

Do you know much about waste-to-energy projects? Let us know in the comments below. We’d love to hear from you.

Preparing an Effective Industrial Waste Management Plan

Did you realize over 7 billion tons of industrial waste is produced in the United States each year? If you are the owner of an industrial business, having an adequate waste management plan is essential. Without a waste management plan, you run the risk of doing a lot of damage to the environment.

If you are new to the world of industrial waste management, you need to take your time when develop a plan of action. Consulting with waste management professionals is a great way to ensure the plan you develop is successful. Below are few crucial tips to  prepare an effective industrial waste management plan.

industrial-waste

Collaborating With the Right Waste Management Company

Unless your company has the ability to transport and dispose of industrial waste, you will need to work with a third-party. Most business owners fail to realize just how many different waste management companies there are on the market. Ideally, you want to find a company that offers services like industrial cleaning, hazardous material transportation and spill response.

If you need services like this for a competitive price, you need to go through PROS Services. By pairing with the right waste management company, you can avoid making mistakes when it comes to disposing of hazardous and non-hazardous materials.

Make Recycling a Focal Point of Your Strategy

Being a business owner in the modern age requires you to be more eco-conscious. One of the best ways for an industrial business to do their part for the environment is by recycling as much as possible. When running an industrial business, you will undoubtedly have a number of recyclable materials. Turning these materials over to companies that can actually do something with them is imperative.

waste-management-plan

Making a new recycling program work will require to get your entire team on board. Informing your team about the importance of recycling is the first step in making your program successful. You also need to implement easy and effective solutions when it comes to how your team will store the recyclable materials. By laying out the details of your plan, you can address any concerns your team may have.

Leave Flexibility in Your Plan

As waste management technology and requirements change, you will have to adapt your strategy. This is why leaving a high-degree of flexibility in your plan is so important. Accomplishing this will be easy if you do things like sign short-term contracts with the companies hired to dispose of your industrial waste. Staying on the cutting edge of industrial waste management technology can help you see when changes are coming and what you can do to embrace these changes.

Don’t Wait to Implement Your Plan

As you can see, having a way to properly dispose of industrial waste is important. This is why you need to avoid procrastinating when developing a plan of action. Allowing professionals to weigh in on the details of your waste management plan can help you avoid making mistakes.

Agricultural Wastes in the Philippines

The Philippines is mainly an agricultural country with a land area of 30 million hectares, 47 percent of which is agricultural. The total area devoted to agricultural crops is 13 million hectares distributed among food grains, food crops and non-food crops. Among the crops grown, rice, coconut and sugarcane are major contributors to biomass energy resources.

The most common agricultural wastes in the Philippines are rice husk, rice straw, coconut husk, coconut shell and bagasse. The country has good potential for biomass power plants as one-third of the country’s agricultural land produces rice, and consequently large volumes of rice straw and hulls are generated.

Rice is the staple food in the Philippines. The Filipinos are among the world’s biggest rice consumers. The average Filipino consumes about 100 kilograms per year of rice.  Though rice is produced throughout the country, the Central Luzon and Cagayan Valley are the major rice growing regions. With more than 1.2 million hectares of rain-fed rice-producing areas, the country produced around 19 million tons of rice in 2019.

The estimated production of rice hull in the Philippines is more than 2 million tons per annum which is equivalent to approximately 5 million BOE (barrels of oil equivalent) in terms of energy. Rice straw is another important biomass resource with potential availability exceeding 5 million tons per year across the country.

rice-biomass-philippines

With the passing of Biofuels Act of 2006, the sugar industry in the Philippines which is the major source of ethanol and domestic sugar will become a major thriving industry. Around 380,000 hectares of land is devoted to sugarcane cultivation. It is estimated that 1.17 million tonnes of sugarcane trash is recoverable as a biomass resource in the Philippines.

In addition, 6.4 million tonnes of surplus bagasse is available from sugar mills. There are 29 operating sugar mills in the country with an average capacity of 6,900 tonnes of cane per day. Majority is located in Negros Island which provides about 46% of the country’s annual sugar production.

The Philippines has the largest number of coconut trees in the world as it produces most of the world market for coconut oil and copra meal. The major coconut wastes include coconut shell, coconut husks and coconut coir dust. Coconut shell is the most widely utilized but the reported utilization rate is very low.  Approximately 500 million coconut trees in the Philippines produce tremendous amounts of biomass as husk (4.1 million tonnes), shell (1.8 million tonnes), and frond (4.5 million tonnes annually).

Maize is a major crop in the Philippines that generates large amounts of agricultural residues. It is estimated that 4 million tonnes of grain maize and 0.96 million tonnes of maize cobs produced yearly in the Philippines. Maize cob burning is the main energy application of the crop, and is widely practiced by small farmers to supplement fuelwood for cooking.

Growing Organic Plants Indoors: What To Know

Indoor plants are a welcome addition to any home. They help spruce up the atmosphere and bring literal life into the room. But sometimes it is difficult to grow these plants due to a variety of reasons, and one of the bigger reasons is the lighting. Throughout the year, the amount of light changes, and it is difficult to find a single spot in the house where a plant will always get sufficient light, due to the movement of the sun.

To solve this problem, grow lights were created, and have become increasingly more popular for home botanists. People have used different types of lights including fluorescent, incandescent, and LED’s (Light Emitting Diodes).

LED grow lights are quickly becoming the most common choice for growing organic plants indoors.

LED-grow-lights

Why LED’s?

LED lights are the most common choice to go with because they are the most energy-efficient and have a wide variety of colors. The light color that works best for chlorophyll absorption, photosynthesis, and growth is a Violet-blue light in the 400-520 nanometer range. Red light(610-720) promotes flowering and budding.

LED grow lights produce a large spectrum of light, and the ones with the most complete spectrum will be the best ones to grow with. They also put off much less heat than the other options, making it possible for you to put the light closer to the plant in this case.

Types of LED Grow Lights

Standard Purple LED’s are the cheapest option for growing, which is their main selling point. They contain hundreds of small low wattage lights(3-5 watts per LED) composed of red and blue lights to emit a purple light.

COB lights (a.k.a Chip on board) lights have many hundreds of tiny lights to make up the one single small chip on the board. They emit a much stronger and brighter white light, which offers better light penetration than the purple LED’s.

indoor-gardening-grow-lights

Spread Style LED’s are another powerful light option, and are more specifically tailored to greenhouses with their “rack” style of lighting, which can cover a large area. They are one of the most efficient LED lights on the market, which also leads to them being a rather expensive option.

Plant position and light placement

The position of the plants and the lights should aim to mimic the natural position of outdoor plants.

  • Give each of the plants an even amount of space(unless it is a plant that may help seed another plant), and space the plants accordingly.
  • Use a level surface, and if possible, keep in a spot that is out of a cat’s reach(easier said than done, I know).
  • Hang the lights straight over top of the plants to mimic the sun, at about roughly 6-12 inches over(this distance can change depending on the plant type) Adjust the lights accordingly as the plants grow.
  • Make sure to test the lights out and confirm that all the plants are getting sufficient light. If you are looking to invest in more lights and more plants, testing out the amount of coverage that the lights have over a certain amount of plants may be the best way to determine how many more lights you should purchase.

How long should you leave the grow light on?

This again depends on the type of plant. Most flowering plants or vegetables grow optimally with a long summer day’s worth of light (12-16 hours), but remember that darkness is an important part of the cycle as well. Plants use the darkness to break down the energy that they produce during the day for growth and flowering, a process known as respiration.

To make sure that you do not exceed the recommended time to keep the lights on, you can set them up with timers. Once you set these timers up to go off at the appropriate time, it’s one less thing that can go wrong.

Conclusion

As stated multiple times, everything tends to be plant-specific, and even if you set something perfectly at first, the constantly changing plants will most likely require readjustment of the lights. Pay attention to the plants especially in the early stages to make sure they do not fall victim to LED burns or other complications from improper placement.

Types of Biogas Storage Systems

Selection of an appropriate biogas storage system makes a significant contribution to the efficiency and safety of a biogas plant. There are two basic reasons for storing biogas: storage for later on-site usage and storage before and/or after transportation to off-site distribution points or systems. A biogas storage system also compensates fluctuations in the production and consumption of biogas as well as temperature-related changes in volume.

There are two broad categories of biogas storage systems: Internal Biogas Storage Tanks are integrated into the anaerobic digester while External Biogas Holders are separated from the digester forming autonomous components of a biogas plant.

The simplest and least expensive storage systems for on-site applications and intermediate storage of biogas are low-pressure systems. The energy, safety, and scrubbing requirements of medium- and high-pressure storage systems make them costly and high-maintenance options for non-commercial use. Such extra costs can be best justified for biomethane or bio-CNG, which has a higher heat content and is therefore a more valuable fuel than biogas.

Low-Pressure Biogas Storage

Floating biogas holders on the digester form a low-pressure storage option for biogas systems. These systems typically operate at pressures below 2 psi. Floating gas holders can be made of steel, fiberglass, or a flexible fabric. A separate tank may be used with a floating gas holder for the storage of the digestate and also storage of the raw biogas. A major advantage of a digester with an integral gas storage component is the reduced capital cost of the system.

The least expensive and most trouble-free gas holder is the flexible inflatable fabric top, as it does not react with the H2S in the biogas and is integral to the digester. These types of covers are often used with plug-flow and complete-mix digesters.

Flexible membrane materials commonly used for these gas holders include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and chlorosulfonated polyethylene covered polyester. Thicknesses for cover materials typically vary from 0.5 to 2.5 millimeters.

Medium-Pressure Biogas Storage

Biogas can also be stored at medium pressure between 2 and 200 psi. To prevent corrosion of the tank components and to ensure safe operation, the biogas must first be cleaned by removing H2S. Next, the cleaned biogas must be slightly compressed prior to storage in tanks.

High-Pressure Biogas Storage

The typical composition of raw biogas does not meet the minimum CNG fuel specifications. In particular, the CO2 and sulfur content in raw biogas is too high for it to be used as vehicle fuel without additional processing. Biogas that has been upgraded to biomethane by removing the H2S, moisture, and CO2 can be used as a vehicular fuel.

Biomethane is less corrosive than biogas, apart from being more valuable as a fuel. Since production of such fuel typically exceeds immediate on-site demand, the biomethane must be stored for future use, usually either as compressed biomethane (CBM) or liquefied biomethane (LBM).

Two of the main advantages of LBM are that it can be transported relatively easily and it can be dispensed to either LNG vehicles or CNG vehicles. Liquid biomethane is transported in the same manner as LNG, that is, via insulated tanker trucks designed for transportation of cryogenic liquids.

Biomethane can be stored as CBM to save space. The gas is stored in steel cylinders such as those typically used for storage of other commercial gases. Storage facilities must be adequately fitted with safety devices such as rupture disks and pressure relief valves.

The cost of compressing gas to high pressures between 2,000 and 5,000 psi is much greater than the cost of compressing gas for medium-pressure storage. Because of these high costs, the biogas is typically upgraded to biomethane prior to compression.