Cogeneration of Bagasse

Cogeneration of bagasse is one of the most attractive and successful biomass energy projects that have already been demonstrated in many sugarcane producing countries such as Mauritius, Reunion Island, India and Brazil. Combined heat and power from sugarcane in the form of power generation offers renewable energy options that promote sustainable development, take advantage of domestic resources, increase profitability and competitiveness in the industry, and cost-effectively address climate mitigation and other environmental goals.

bagasse_cogeneration

According to World Alliance for Decentralized Energy (WADE) report on Bagasse Cogeneration, bagasse-based cogeneration could deliver up to 25% of current power demand requirements in the world’s main cane producing countries. The overall potential share in the world’s major developing country producers exceeds 7%.

There is abundant opportunity for the wider use of bagasse-based cogeneration in sugarcane-producing countries. It is especially great in the world’s main cane producing countries like Brazil, India, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Philippines and Vietnam. Yet this potential remains by and large unexploited.

Using bagasse to generate power represents an opportunity to generate significant revenue through the sale of electricity and carbon credits. Additionally, cogeneration of heat and power allows sugar producers to meet their internal energy requirements and drastically reduce their operational costs, in many cases by as much as 25%. Burning bagasse also removes a waste product through its use as a feedstock for the electrical generators and steam turbines.

Most sugarcane mills around the globe have achieved energy self-sufficiency for the manufacture of raw sugar and can also generate a small amount of exportable electricity. However, using traditional equipment such as low-pressure boilers and counter-pressure turbo alternators, the level and reliability of electricity production is not sufficient to change the energy balance and attract interest for export to the electric power grid.

bagasse-cogen

On the other hand, revamping the boiler house of sugar mills with high pressure boilers and condensing extraction steam turbine can substantially increase the level of exportable electricity. This experience has been witnessed in Mauritius, where, following major changes in the processing configurations, the exportable electricity from its sugar factory increased from around 30-40 kWh to around 100–140 kWh per ton cane crushed.

In Brazil, the world’s largest cane producer, most of the sugar mills are upgrading their boiler configurations to 42 bars or even higher pressure of up to 67 bars.

Technology Options

The prime technology for sugar mill cogeneration is the conventional steam-Rankine cycle design for conversion of fuel into electricity. A combination of stored and fresh bagasse is usually fed to a specially designed furnace to generate steam in a boiler at typical pressures and temperatures of usually more than 40 bars and 440°C respectively.

The high pressure steam is then expanded either in a back pressure or single extraction back pressure or single extraction condensing or double extraction cum condensing type turbo generator operating at similar inlet steam conditions.

35MW-bagasse-coal-chp-plant-mauritius

35MW Bagasse and Coal CHP Plant in Mauritius

 

Due to high pressure and temperature, as well as extraction and condensing modes of the turbine, higher quantum of power gets generated in the turbine–generator set, over and above the power required for sugar process, other by-products, and cogeneration plant auxiliaries. The excess power generated in the turbine generator set is then stepped up to extra high voltage of 66/110/220 kV, depending on the nearby substation configuration and fed into the nearby utility grid.

As the sugar industry operates seasonally, the boilers are normally designed for multi-fuel operations, so as to utilize mill bagasse, sugarcane trash, crop residues, coal and other fossil fuel, so as to ensure year round operation of the power plant for export to the grid.

Latest Trends

Modern power plants use higher pressures, up to 87 bars or more. The higher pressure normally generates more power with the same quantity of Bagasse or biomass fuel. Thus, a higher pressure and temperature configuration is a key in increasing exportable surplus electricity.

In general, 67 bars pressure and 495°C temperature configurations for sugar mill cogeneration plants are well-established in many sugar mills in India. Extra high pressure at 87 bars and 510°C, configuration comparable to those in Mauritius, is the current trend and there are about several projects commissioned and operating in India and Brazil. The average increase of power export from 40 bars to 60 bars to 80 bars stages is usually in the range of 7-10%.

A promising alternative to steam turbines are gas turbines fuelled by gas produced by thermochemical conversion of biomass. The exhaust is used to raise steam in heat recovery systems used in any of the following ways: heating process needs in a cogeneration system, for injecting back into gas turbine to raise power output and efficiency in a steam-injected gas turbine cycle (STIG) or expanding through a steam turbine to boost power output and efficiency in a gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GTCC).

Gas turbines, unlike steam turbines, are characterized by lower unit capital costs at modest scale, and the most efficient cycles are considerably more efficient than comparably sized steam turbines.

Common Myths About Multiple Monitor Setups

It’s difficult to know what to believe online these days. From fake news to gossip and made-up statistics, it can be very confusing. Many of us have our trusted news sources, but what about when buying a product? How do you know what’s right for you? It’s all about first knowing what you want to achieve and how the product will fit into your lifestyle, no one else’s. To get you started, view more options for some of the best computers in the industry for a 6 monitor setup. Then, we’ll review how to make an informed decision. However, don’t forget to send your name and email address to get regular updates.

Common Myths of Having a 6 Monitor Setup

Everyone is raving about their multiple monitor setups, whether they run two, three or 6 monitors with their computer. Then again, if you’re being cynical, you could say that of course they’re going to rave about their 6 monitor setup. After all, they’ve just spent time and effort setting it all up.

Myths About Multiple Monitor Setups

However, with the right research, you can work it out for yourself if a 6 monitor setup is the perfect answer for you. Ultimately, most people claim it improves their productivity. Every case is different though and it’s worth knowing the myths about that claim:

  • Multitasking
  • Productivity is a given
  • Bigger doesn’t mean better
  • Balance

Multitasking

Every neuroscientist and psychologist can tell you that multitasking is simply not possible with the human brain. As Dr Madore and Wagner from the Dana Foundation show in their research, our brain architecture doesn’t allow us to do two tasks at once. We believe we are doing that because the switch is so fast. Either way, we are less effective.

Sadly, many people claim they can multitask with a 6 monitor setup. While that is not true, let’s not forget that you can lay out your documents to refer to more easily when working on one thing. We often need several data points and you have less tabbing to do with a multi monitor setup.

Productivity is a given

There are many studies that claim that you are between 30% and 50% more productive with a 6 monitor setup. They forgot to tell you that this depends on the individual, the work involved and how they manage their workflow. You can just as easily be distracted by all your display screens, games, chat platforms and various other open windows.

Bigger doesn’t mean better

Most people prefer working on a larger desk space rather than a cramped one. Nevertheless, you need to know how to optimize your 6 monitor setup. That’s why many people start with two or three before deciding if they really need 6 monitors. Again, it depends on the individual’s needs.

Another point to note is that with more monitor display screens come more cables. This can be a nightmare if it’s not tied back properly. You can also be far away from your power supply unit which opens you up to lots of tripping over. Moreover, you often end up with a mix of various ports that fit with one HDMI, VGA, DVI, USB or DisplayPort. That’s confusing for most of us.

Balance

We all need to work out our balance in life and how we approach the various aspects of our lives whether family, friends or work. It’s the same with the 6 monitor setup. You can’t just assume that you’ll have a balanced approach because you now have this multi-monitor setup sitting in your house.

You now have to work out how to manage your distractions, how to organize your workflow and schedule. Perhaps some of the others in your house want to use the 6 monitor setup as well? How will you manage to keep everyone happy?

How to Buy a 6 Monitor Setup or Not to Buy?

Just as people have strong opinions about Mac versus Windows 10, there are debates about whether a 6 monitor setup is worth it. Everyone has to make their own choice even though there’s no denying that it’s amazing equipment with huge advantages.

Here are some questions to get you thinking about what’s right for you:

  • What are your goals and intentions?
  • How will you manage distractions?
  • What entertainment benefits can you enjoy?

Goals

In essence, if you work with multiple documents and programs then yes, a 6 monitor setup is going to be very useful for you. People who need to review documents such as lawyers also appreciate having the extra screen space.

Entertainment and distractions

The most famous users though are traders and gamers because of the extra power they get from their 6 monitor setup. Basically, graphics get updated more effectively thanks to the integrated graphics card that powers multiple monitor setups. That’s why you’ll often see the top brands Radeon and NVIDIA for this video card installed on top computers for multiple monitor setups.

We all need breaks sometimes and a 6 monitor setup doubles up as an amazing home cinema. Again, this is thanks to your graphics cards. Nevertheless, you need to make sure you’re happy with how you’re going to manage the distractions that many screens open at any one time can provide.

Final Thoughts

Nothing is ever black and white and everything has its pros and cons. This is the same when quoting productivity and other benefits for a 6 monitor setup. You need to work out whether it will really provide a positive for you or more likely to be a distraction. Think about your needs and why you want a multiple monitor setup. It will be much easier to then make the right decision for you.

Plastic Packaging Waste in the Philippines: An Analysis

I recently took a 5-month break from my work as an environmental consultant to volunteer with Marine Conservation Philippines (MCP) on the issue of marine litter. During the first few months of my stint there, we undertook an intense programme of beach cleans across sections of a small sample of local beaches. The idea was to find out what kinds of material were most prevalent, to inform the types of local initiative we could set up to try and tackle the issues.

Consistently, the vast majority of the debris we found strewn across the beaches across the Philippines was plastic; a significant amount of that was soft plastics which can’t be recycled – plastic bags, sweet and crisp packets, and single use soap and detergent sachets. There were some variations, though: at one beach, we kept picking up a staggering amount of styrofoam.

During our beach clean work and engagement with local communities, it became increasingly apparent that part of the problem was the variability of waste management across the municipality of Zamboanguita, in the Negros Oriental province of the Philippines.

Despite national legislation, some areas received no formal waste collections at all. With the help of the local Coastal Resources Manager, Tony Yocor, we began to engage with the local municipality’s Solid Waste Manager with the view to supporting appropriate an affordable waste management practices.

We focused on solutions that have been successful elsewhere in the Philippines and in other emerging markets, such as the local collection and waste sorting approach developed by Mother Earth Foundation. Unfortunately, as with most places in the world, influencing the authorities to act takes time, and whilst we started to make some progress, Tony and the staff at MCP are still working on trying to get the full range of local solutions we identified implemented.

Materials and markets

We did, however, build our own ‘MRF’ (more of a community recycling centre in UK terms) at MCP’s base to improve the management of the waste we collected. The main aim of the site is to allow as many recyclable materials as possible to be segregated so that they can be sold to the local junk shops. We also hope that this can act as a demonstration site for the types of simple solutions that can be set up locally to improve waste management.

But ultimately, if we are serious about tackling this issue of marine debris, we have to reduce the amount of litter we produce, and many countries are making progress on tackling commonly littered items. Restrictions on single use carrier bags are amongst the most prominent and widespread anti-littering measures around the world.

England’s 5p carrier bag levy was introduced in 2015 and, despite its limitations, is reducing bag usage and (it would seem) marine litter. Last year Kenya hit the headlines when it joined the growing list of countries adopting a rather stricter line: it banned plastic carrier bags entirely, with offenders risking heavy fines or even imprisonment.

Although bans and restrictions are becoming increasingly widespread, they have not yet reached the Philippines at a national level and it seems no coincidence that a large proportion of the items we found littered on our sample beaches around Zamboanguita were plastic bags. One beach, close to where the largest ‘ghetto’ market is held weekly, had a particularly high incidence of plastic bag litter, and the quantity increased noticeably on, and just after, market day. Use wholesale tote bags to promote sustainable living in the Philippines.

Without national instruments in place, we explored what could be done with the policy powers available to the local government. Working with the local Markets Officer and Coastal Resources Manager we put the wheels in motion to propose and implement a local ordinance to introduce a charge on plastic bags, initially at the market as a trial, with the potential for a wider roll-out if successful. It’s a model that could be reapplied elsewhere in the Philippines if national legislation isn’t forthcoming.

Sachet and sea?

Plastic bags are a challenge, but because they’re distributed locally it’s relatively easy to change practices. Other forms of single use packaging contribute just as much to the litter problem afflicting many South East Asian counties, but are harder to tackle because their source is more remote.

The Philippines, like many developing and emerging economies, is a ‘sachet economy’, with a huge range of products sold in one-portion, single-use sachets. You see them everywhere, from small ‘sari sari’ stalls to large shopping centres. The producers’ perspective is that this form of packaging represents a form of social responsibility, allowing them to provide safe, long-lasting, affordable products that meet people’s needs. However, they have a wider cost.

Sachet society: one of the most common forms of litter in the Philippines. Photo courtesy of Amy Slack.

I was involved in Break Free from Plastic Negros Oriental’s December beach clean and audit, and these sachets were the most common item we found. They accounted for a massive 25% of the items picked up from Dumaguete beach, beating plastic bags into second place (13%).

The waste management system in the Philippines simply isn’t geared up to dealing with this increasingly popular type of packaging – the composite materials of which they are made are impractical to recycle and so lack the economic value that engages the interest of the informal sector. So, what could be done to help?

The Best Foot Forward

There is no ‘silver bullet’ to instantly lay marine litter to rest. Even if there was a global ban on single use plastics today, it would take time for already littered material to blow or wash its way through the system.

However, introducing a compulsory extended producer responsibility (EPR) mechanism into policy could help end the blame game that currently impedes action: producers blame the general public for littering, the general public blame the government for inadequate waste systems, and government blames produces for manufacturing plastic packaging.

An EPR scheme would see government giving clear responsibilities to business, and ensuring that producers fund collection and reprocessing schemes to properly manage the waste from the products they sell in the Philippines. That would in turn incentivise producers to use more easily recyclable packaging, as the costs of managing this material would be lower.

The goal need not be to try to ape the waste management systems of the West, which may not be suitable in the circumstances. And in the Philippines, where labour is cheap and informal waste management thrives, it may take little more than giving a small value to packaging products to greatly reduce the amount of material that escapes into the environment.

Conclusion

Although countries like the Philippines currently struggle most to cope with the consequences of plastic packaging waste, with the right set of policies and determined volunteers to help organise local action, there is scope for them to catch up and overhaul the West in developing solutions that really do reduce litter.

Note: The article has been republished with the permission of our collaborative partner Isonomia. The original version of the article can be found at this link

Waste Management in Global North and Global South

Waste management is highly context specific. Therefore it is important to distinguish between the conditions in the Global North and the Global South. Recent ILO figures suggest that 24 million people around the world are involved in the informal waste recycling sector, 80% of whom are waste pickers. Some estimates say that 1% of urban population in developing countries makes their primary household income through informal sector waste management activities.  In Latin America alone, 4-5 million waste pickers earn their livelihood by being a part of the global recyclables supply chain.

waste-management-latin-america

Municipal budgets in the Global South are often limited and only a small percentage of that budget is assigned to waste management as compared to other municipal services. In the Global North waste management is recognized as a necessary public good and there is a greater willingness to pay for this service. Solid waste management (e.g. waste collection, transportation and recycling) is generally more labour intensive than in North America and Europe.

Urbanization in the Global South is often haphazard and unplanned; creating pockets of high and low income neighbourhoods. This creates logistical issues for the waste management service provision limiting options for viable waste collection and transportation. It is often the informal sector that steps in to fill this service gap.

The maturity and strength of the legal framework differs between the Global South and Global North. In North America and Europe the legal framework of waste management actively promotes and provides incentives for waste reduction, reuse and recovery whereas, despite recent developments in some countries, in Latin America legal frameworks remain focused upon mixed waste collection, transportation and disposal.

Recycling rates in Argentina are at 11% of the total waste stream with 95% of this material is recovered by the informal sector. This situation is replicated in many other countries. The informal sector recovers between 50% (e.g. Mexico) and 90% (e.g. Nicaragua) of the waste recovered and in the different countries of the region. Resource recovery and recycling is driven by market conditions. Materials that have a value are diverted from landfill through an informal network of recyclers and waste collectors.

The composition of waste is also very different in the Global South where organic waste is a much larger percentage of the waste stream. Because of the high percentage of organics in the waste stream in many cities in the Global South, innovations in decentralised composting and small scale biogas have been seen across the Global South (particularly in India) and can be used effectively by the informal sector, making a zero waste future a real possibility.

Role of Informal Recycling Sector

The informal sector can be highly effective at collecting and diverting garbage from landfill. When empowered with a facilitating legal framework, and collectively organized, the informal sector can be a key part of a sustainable resource recovery system. Using people power to increase recycling and diversion rates decreases the need for expensive, fixed, high technology solutions.

Understanding that the context for waste management is different between the Global North and Global South, and even in different areas within a city or region, means that no two situations will be the same. However, if there is one principle to follow it may well be to consider the context and look for the simplest solution. The greenest cities of the future may well be those that use flexible, adaptable solutions and maximize the work that the informal sector is already doing.

Note: This excerpt is being published with the permission of our collaborative partner Be Waste Wise. The original excerpt and its video recording can be found at this link

Hall Design Ideas: Enhance the Beauty of Your House

The living room of the house is the first place that your guests see when they visit your house, it has to be decorated in the best way to get the perfect first impression, right?

If you are planning to renovate your house or going to build a new one then read the basic hall design ideas that we have brought for you today. This will give you a brief idea of how to plan and execute your hall interior in the perfect way.

Let us check it out.

1. Select an elegant color theme

Selecting an elegant color theme is the first choice that one has to take for getting the perfect hall design.

The first attraction of your living room will be the color combination that you have selected. If you have selected the right color combination then the beauty of your hall will be excellent and will create a positive and elegant impression on the mind of the people who visit your house.

trends-hall-design

You can take the help of a good interior designer and he/she will let you know of the correct color combination that will make your hall look mesmerizing.

2. Think of the interior

Now, figure out how you want the interior to be like. Whether you want to have wooden flooring, tile flooring, or anything else. Think of the other interior elements that you would love to have in your living room.

Do some research for the same or talk to a good interior designer and he/she will let you know the modern trends.

Have elegant LED lighting as it will enhance your living room a lot. You can have chandeliers as it will give a royal feel to your house. Small artistic items and creative elements will enhance the beauty of your room too.

3. Get the right sofa design

Now, the next step that you have to take is to select the sofa design. There are a variety of different sofa styles available, you can choose anyone from it that you like the most.

Visit any shop, have a look at the different sofa styles that are available, think of the sofa size and how many sofas will you require and other details. Also, the color of the sofa should be matching with the color combination of your hall to make the most out of your hall design.

Apart from this, you can have a small library, plants, decoration items, floor mat, dining table, and other things as per your requirement and availability of space.

So, here were the steps to follow to get the perfect hall design for your house. Follow them and get the best living room design to enhance the beauty of your house.

Best Algebra Learning Website for Students – AssignMaths.com: Find Professional Helper

Algebra is one of the most important branches of mathematics. In a narrow sense, it can be characterized as a generalization of arithmetic. According to a broader definition, algebra is a separate math branch, the task of which is to explore operations on elements of a set of arbitrary nature. In this case, a generalization of the usual operations of addition and multiplication of numbers takes place.

Best Algebra Learning Website for Students

What Are the Objectives of Learning Algebra?

According to experts working in the online service assignmaths.com/do-my-algebra-homework/ and providing effective help in completing algebra homework, the study of the discipline is aimed at achieving the following goals:

  • Provide possession of the system of mathematical knowledge and skills necessary for application in practical activities, the study of related disciplines, continuing education;
  • Provide intellectual development, the formation of personality traits necessary for a full life in modern society: clarity and accuracy of thought, critical thinking, intuition, logical thinking, elements of algorithmic culture, spatial representations, the ability to overcome difficulties;
  • To form knowledge about the ideas and methods of mathematics as a universal language of science and technology, a means of modeling phenomena and processes;
  • To foster a culture of personality, an attitude towards mathematics as part of a common human culture, an understanding of the importance of mathematics for scientific and technological progress;
  • To develop computational and formal-operational algebraic skills to a level that allows to confidently use them in solving problems of mathematics and related subjects, mastering the apparatus of equations and inequalities as the main means of mathematical modeling of applied problems, and the implementation of functional training of students.

As we can see, very important tasks are assigned to algebra as an academic discipline. Teachers teach this subject as responsibly as possible, try to impart deep knowledge of algebra to students. Serious attention is paid to the formation of reasoning skills, making simple proofs, providing justifications for the actions performed. In parallel, the foundations are laid for the study of systematic courses in stereometry, physics, chemistry, and other related subjects.

For the efficient solution of cognitive and communicative tasks, students are offered to use various sources of information (encyclopedias, reference books, dictionaries, Internet resources, and other databases) in accordance with the communicative task, sphere, and situation of communication, consciously choose the expressive means of language and sign systems (text, table, diagram, etc.).

How to Overcome Difficulties Arising in Learning Algebra?

It is quite difficult for students to regularly cope with all the assignments of the teacher in algebra. A number of challenges often arise that require an instant solution. Fortunately, today everyone can get quality help with algebra homework at an affordable price.

For this, you just need to visit the best algebra learning website for students and turn to professionals with the request “Do my algebra homework for me”. There you will definitely be able to find someone who can meet all your requirements and deliver the completed work on time.

Do My Algebra Homework for Me: Professional Team of Experts

Be sure that when you turn to the online service with requests like “Do my algebra assignment for me”, “I want to pay someone to do my algebra homework”, “I need to get algebra homework doer”, etc. you are making the right decision. The company employs many top-level experts who do even the most complicated algebra hw without any problems. Each helper has the necessary knowledge and skills to fulfill custom orders efficiently. In particular, every expert knows:

  • The importance of mathematical science for solving problems arising in theory and practice; the breadth and limitations of the application of algebra methods to the analysis and study of processes and phenomena in nature and society;
  • The importance of practice and questions arising in algebra for the formation and development of mathematical science;
  • Ideas for expanding numerical sets as a way to build a new mathematical apparatus for solving practical problems and internal problems of algebra;
  • The value of ideas, methods, and results of algebra and mathematical analysis for building models of real processes and situations;
  • The universal nature of the laws of the logic of mathematical reasoning, their applicability in various fields of human activity;
  • The difference in the requirements for proof in mathematics, natural, socio-economic, and humanitarian sciences;
  • The role of axioms in algebra; the possibility of constructing mathematical theories on an axiomatic basis; the importance of axiomatics for other areas of knowledge and for practice;
  • The probabilistic nature of various processes and patterns of the surrounding world, etc.

Among the basic skills of professional specialists, the following should be mentioned:

  • Perform arithmetic operations, combining oral and written techniques, the use of computing devices; find the values ​​of the root of a natural degree, a degree with a rational exponent, a logarithm, using computing devices, if necessary;
  • Determine the meaning of the function by the meaning of the argument in different ways of defining the function;
  • Solve rational, exponential, and logarithmic equations and inequalities, irrational and trigonometric equations, their systems;
  • Solve the simplest combinatorial problems by enumeration method, as well as using well-known formulas, Pascal’s triangle; calculate the coefficients of Newton’s binomial using the formula and Pascal’s triangle, etc.

Pay attention that thanks to the high level of qualifications, the specialists academic assistance website have gained great recognition among students from around the world. Many people choose this service over other websites on the Internet because everyone can get reliable and safe help there.

climate anxiety

Are There Any Benefits from Cooperation?

Write to the manager of the online service a message like “I want to find an experienced helper who will complete my assignment for me. Can you do my algebra homework?” and get your work done at the highest level. In addition to high-quality help, you will also receive an affordable price, full compliance with the established requirements, the confidentiality of personal data, various reliable payment methods, free edits, round-the-clock support, etc.

Cooperation is profitable and efficient. Make sure of this already today!

The Latest Developments On Solar Energy Technology

Twenty years ago, solar panels on residential homes were virtually non-existent. In today’s age, they’re becoming more and more prevalent. That’s due to several factors, including plummeting costs, advances in tech, and more. Homeowners also have some attractive incentives to go solar, including tax breaks and lower utility bills.

By the end of Q3 2020, the US had enough solar panels to power an impressive 16.4 million homes. While that trend slowed a bit recently due to component shortages, it’s sure to continue to rise in the future. A lot is happening in the world of solar energy lately, including some exciting new research. As efficiencies in technology continue to improve, prices will continue to fall. As such, solar power will become more accessible to residential homes in America. Here’s a look at some of the latest developments related to solar panels and renewable energy.

Trends in Solar Energy Technology

NREL and Improving Solar Panel LID Defects

As of October 2021, researchers at the US Department of Energy have been designing improvements for solar panels. The DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with the Colorado School of Mines to do so. Their goal is to develop a new technique to identify defects in silicon solar cells. These defects are what cause significant drops in a solar panel’s efficiency. That’s known as light-induced degradation (LID), and it’s long been a problem for solar panels.

Researchers are working at the atomic level to identify LID defects in silicon solar panels. Light-induced degradation can strip the efficiency of a solar panel by 2%. While that may not seem like much, it does a lot to wear away at a panel’s typical 30-40 year lifespan. Solar panels made from silicon make up more than 96% of the panels on the market today. The potential improvements that the team at the NREL can create from their research are massive. If they can discover a way to combat LID, they can revolutionize the way manufacturers strengthen their solar panels.

Bringing Solar Technology Indoors

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are finding indoor uses for solar. Doing so would significantly increase the energy efficiency of buildings and smart devices. NIST researchers used a series of small modular PV devices made of different materials. The goal was to test the indoor charging capabilities of these devices. To do so, they hooked up the lowest efficiency module to a wireless temperature sensor.

The results were exciting. The silicon module, absorbing light from an LED, could supply more power than it consumed. That suggests that the device could run indefinitely while the lights stay on. That would remove the need for exchanging or recharging batteries. In the past, flipping on a light switch meant expending energy. With the recent discoveries at NIST, flipping a light switch can mean producing energy too.

The world continues to move toward a transition to renewable energy. Solar panels are more affordable than ever, and solar technology is improving all the time. It’s easier now more than ever for a homeowner to install solar panels.

Plastic Wastes and Role of EPR

In just a few decades plastics have become omnipresent in our society. But, unfortunately, the consequences of their use last far beyond their useful lifetime. Everyone is aware of their overwhelming dispersion in our landscapes. The situation in the oceans is not better [1]. As a reaction, a few thoughts spring to my mind.

First of all, it is clear that the industry is assuming very little responsibility, and that Public Administrations are complicit with this. Extended Producer Pesponsibility (abbreviated as EPR) only affects –and only partially– those plastics used as light packaging, in vehicles, in tyres or as part of electric and electronic equipment, not any of the others. Also, recycling levels are not sufficiently high, as a result of poor separate collection systems and inefficient treatment facilities. As a consequence, society has to face not only the problems created by those materials which are not recycled, but also has to assume a high share of the costs of managing them as waste.

Secondly, it illustrates the importance of the quality of the materials that we aim to recycle, and thus the importance of separate waste collection; for all materials, but particularly for biowaste. Although most composting and anaerobic digestion facilities have the capacity to separate some of the impurities (of which around 40% can be plastics), this separation is far from perfect.

Two recent studies confirm that the quality of compost is influenced by the presence of impurities in biowaste [2] and that, in turn, the presence of impurities is influenced by several factors [3], among which particularly the type of separate collection scheme, door to door separate collection models being those presenting better results.

Thirdly, it makes clear the urgency to adopt measures that address the root of the problem. High quality separate collection and sound waste treatment are necessary, and allow enormous room for improvement, but they are end-of-pipe solutions. It is also important to promote greener consumption patterns through environmental awareness campaigns, but this is not enough either.

We have to address the problem where it is created. And this requires measures of higher impact, such as taxes on certain products (e.g. disposable ones) or on certain materials, compulsory consideration of eco-design criteria, generalisation of the extended producer responsibility or prohibition of certain plastics (e.g. oxo-degradable ones) or of certain uses (e.g. microplastic beads in cosmetics).

glitter-plastic-pollution

One can think that these measures are a bit too hard, but honestly, after wandering around beaches and mountains, and finding plastics absolutely everywhere, I am bit disappointed with the outcome of soft solutions.

On 16th January 2018 the European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy was adopted [4]. A number of measures will need to be applied by the European Union (listed in Annex I of the Strategy), by Member States and by the industry (Annex II), but also by Regional Governments and Local Authorities. No doubt that implementing the Strategy will bring about significant advances, but only time will say if it is sufficient to address the huge challenge we face.

The European Union has also recently adopted the much-awaited Directive 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment [5], which introduces several bans and restrictions on different uses and materials. This is indeed a huge step, which needs to be followed by others, both in Europe, but also elsewhere, as this is truly a global challenge.

Note: An earlier version of this article was published in February 2018: https://mailchi.mp/db1fd794d528/sent-11-april-2018

References

[1] See for example: https://tinyurl.com/yxra3cod

[2] Campos Rodrigues, L., Puig Ventosa, I., López, M., Martínez, X. (2016) Anàlisi de la incidència dels impropis de la FORM sobre la qualitat del compost de les plantes de compostatge de Catalunya https://tinyurl.com/y37ncton

[3] Puig-Ventosa, I., Freire-González, J., Jofra-Sora, M. (2013) Determining factors for the presence of impurities in selectively collected biowaste, Waste Management and Research, 31: 510-517.

[4] The strategy and several accompanying documents can be found in this portal: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/plastic_waste.htm

[5] Directive 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment.

Upgrading the Future of Defense with Data Science Training Institute in Hyderabad

We have entered the second decade of the 21st century and thinking of setting up colonies on the moon. The technological advancement has been huge in the past decade, with the latest technologies becoming obsolete within a matter of months. We live in the age of the internet where everything and everyone is connected every moment with the help of the internet.

The average number of people using the internet has risen considerably in the past few years thanks to the decreasing prices of internet services and automation of most work processes. The majority of the jobs and professions has evolved and become more advanced, so they continuously use the internet for their work process. We buy most of our things be it our party clothes or even our daily groceries from online sellers. The world is now running on another fuel and that is the internet.

With all these increased consumption of the internet, another factor has entered the play and that is the concept of Data Science. Whenever we use the internet or any digital medium for any purpose some data is generated.

data-scientists

 

Once the scientists and engineers solved the problem of storage of the exorbitant amount of data that is produced daily, we moved on to devising new and innovative ways to utilize this data and obtain the necessary and useful information.

Data Science Certification in Hyderabad is the implementation of various analytical methods on the data to reveal useful information. It is a wide area and consists of a large number of methods and processes.

Application of Data Science in Defense Sector

The threats from terrorism and trade wars are now more than ever and since the major portion of national income of any country goes into improving the defense systems of the nation, it is understandable that technological advancements would also be applied to the systems to make them stronger.

Constant research and development by the data scientists have provided us with much-advanced technology that can be efficiently implemented in the defense systems. Data science has radically changed the landscape of defense and military industry of almost all the major nations in the past 2 or 3 years. Many technologies that we had seen before only in Hollywood sci-fi movies are a reality now and most of them owe their existence to data science.

Every potential threat to the security of the nation is also equipped with modern technologies and hence to tackle them, we also need to make technologically advanced defense mechanisms.

data-science-defence-sector

Some of the common applications of data science in defense systems are as follows:

  • For improving transportation and logistics. Various data about previous transportation and logistics could be processed with the help of data science and we can obtain the most efficient routes and techniques.
  • The most popular use of data science is to extrapolate the enemy history data to extract various patterns in their attacks and routes and we can take the measures to prevent them accordingly.
  • Data science is used to reinforce digital security to provide better protection for the sensitive information that might be hacked from any digital platform.
  • It can be used for threat monitoring 24/7 and also for detecting potential threats.
  • Data science is increasingly being used for creating virtual medical assistants for soldiers to provide the most effective care and medical help on the battlefield.

Every day the data scientists are working hard to come up with new and more efficient applications of data science in the defense systems. The market for data science is ripe right now and if you are a data scientist or interested in becoming one then you should be putting your pedal to the metal and explore the applications of Data Science Training Institute in Hyderabad in defense.

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360DigiTMG – Data Analytics, Data Science Course Training Hyderabad

Address: 2-56/2/19, 3rd floor,, Vijaya towers, near Meridian school,, Ayyappa Society Rd, Madhapur,, Hyderabad, Telangana 500081

Phone: 099899 94319

The Need-to-Know About Solar Panel Degradation

Some things get better with age – a bottle of whisky, a jar of pickles, or even a life full of wisdom. However, it is contradictory for an electronic device such as the solar power system. Solar panels and their system components are fated to degrade over time despite the lifespan of 20 to 30 years which depends on the manufacturer.

What is Solar Panel Degradation?

Solar panels deteriorate slowly over time. Degradation in solar panels means they generate less power output from the same amount of sunlight as they age. The period of degradation is measured against the lifespan of the solar panels.

what is solar panel degradation

Why Solar Panels Degrade Over Time?

The degradation of solar panels has been a challenging problem for manufacturers in the industry. However, advancements and developments pop up to lower the degradation rate while keeping up the power output. Although it is still a safe investment, the solar power system is expected to deteriorate at or below a specific rate.

The average degradation rate of the panels is at one percent each year. Nevertheless, a study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) shows that quality panels degrade at a rate of 0.4% over time which is remarkably lower.

Types of Solar Panel Degradation

There are three types of solar panel degradation to keep tabs on.

1. Light-Induced Degradation (LID)

Despite slow degradation as time goes by, it is crucial to know what happens to the solar power system once installed for the first time in residences, industries, or businesses. The degradation rate is significantly higher, which is at one to three percent within a short amount of time due to the sun exposure of the panels. This type of degradation is the Light-Induced Degradation or LID.

Without a doubt, sunlight is also considered a factor that contributes to the deterioration of the panels. To address this matter, manufacturers added UV blockers to protect the panels from the intense radiation from the sun.

2. Potential-Induced Degradation (PID)

The Potential-Induced Degradation or PID affects different components in the solar power system, such as the photovoltaic cells or panel frame. Once these components are disrupted, it causes voltage leaks which lowers the amount of electricity the panel can generate.

Although this type of degradation does not typically occur, it can significantly dent the panels’ performance by 30%.

3. Aging-Related Degradation

The solar power system will never be able to evade natural wear and tear. Various external factors contribute to the degradation of the panels. One of these factors, which is also difficult to control, is the weather. The adverse weather conditions in the country, such as snow, ice, hail, strong winds, and heavy rainfall, reduce the panels’ efficiency. These age-related degradations can cause microcracks.

Microcracks are very tiny cracks that form in the crystalline silicon of solar cells. Once these microcracks form, electrical connections also deteriorate. And if this happens, the photons from the sun have fewer paths to flow into; hence, less energy goes to the solar inverter that supplies electricity to the residence, industry, or business.

Microcracks are also caused by thermal cycling. Thermal cycling involves cycling two extreme temperatures rapidly. Warm temperature makes the panel and its components expand, while cold temperature enables it to contract. The constant cycling rapidly between these two extreme temperatures strains the panels and forms microcracks.

Water can get inside since these microcracks create holes on the panel’s surface and damage the seal. Other than these degradations, adverse weather conditions can also cause the hardening of the silicon, eroding of the frames, and contaminating the solar cells.

solar panels pigeon issue

Other reasons that contribute to the deterioration of solar panels

1. Quality of Materials

Some manufacturers will produce substandard or low-quality materials to keep the panels’ price low. These materials and components include solar glass, solar cells, and aluminum frames. Cheap materials increase the risk of product failure, which would eventually lead to more expenditures.

2. Installation

The way the panels are assembled and installed can affect their degradation rate. Installers need to be careful with the handling of solar modules. Since these panels are carried on top of their hardhats, the constant flexing, rocking, and bouncing back and forth can result in microcracks, scratches, and improper installations of electrical connections. Moreover, incompatible components and materials can speed up LID or PID on the panels.

3. Cleaning and Maintenance

Although the solar panel requires little maintenance, it is still vital to periodically monitor and check it to clear any debris or build-up that may affect its performance. It is also essential to check regularly the other components in the system, such as the cables, connections, and inverters, to ensure optimal performance.

Although the degradation of the solar power system is inevitable, it is paramount to understand the reasons they deteriorate in due time. Understanding their life cycle helps set your expectations and get the most out of your superb long-term investment.