What is the Fourth Industrial Revolution?

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, also called Industry 4.0, is the rapidly growing automation of industrial and traditional practices with modern intelligent technologies. Like all industrial revolutions, the Fourth could raise incomes and improve the quality of life around the world. You can now make taxi or flight bookings, do shopping, and pay for online services remotely.

What Is the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Definition of Industrial Revolution

The term “Industry 4.0” appeared in 2011 in Germany. It denoted smart factories, where digital technologies were being introduced. The term went into mass use with the president of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Klaus Schwab, author of the book “Technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution”. It is a thorough guide about transformational processes for all who analyze the theory of the matter.

Based on this work, many students have tried to investigate the origins and problems of Industry 4.0 in their essays. However, the background may be tricky for those who are not proficient in this field. Sometimes it might be supportive to get additional expert help in exploring the nuances of the topic.

The experts contributed much to exploring industrial revolution essay topics. As a result, a qualitative and concise industrial revolution essay from knowledgeable writers has become an excellent opportunity to learn more about this phenomenon. Moreover, it allows one to navigate the topic without delving deeply into research.

The essence of Industry 4.0 is that the physical world today merges with the virtual. It results in the creation of the new mixed complexes. Later they will be combined into one digital system. “Smart” plants and robotic production form the future transformed industry. Industry 4.0 means the growing automation of all production processes and stages. It starts from the product‘s digital design to the remote setup of equipment at the factory to manufacture this “smart” product.

Signs of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

There are several signs that the future is nearer than we think.

1. Social networks

You will not surprise anyone with an account on social networks or a personal website. Half of humanity is now actively present online. Taking into account the digital development, in 5 years this percentage will increase dramatically.

2. The Universe in your pocket

The smartphone is a unique supercomputer that is always with you. Connected to the Internet, you can link with any spot in the world. In addition, you can make purchases and dedicate time to education or entertainment. And all this without even leaving home.

4. Smart home

The daily routine is becoming increasingly automated. You can run some dishwashers from a smartphone or run robot vacuum cleaners online. This is just the beginning of transformations.

Myths about Smart Homes

4. Digital currency

The financial system is rapidly developing. The latest virtual money technologies are replacing the bank. In addition to bitcoin, more and more digital coins appear on cryptocurrency exchanges.

Impact on Business

The material world has been combined with the virtual and generates new methods and career models. Manufacturers earn more and invest in improving the quality of products and services. Industry 4.0 is a new production approach. It is based on the active introduction of information technology in the industry. Besides, it involves business process automation and the spread of artificial intelligence.

Businesses that are used to making the same outdated things have to change. Implementing modern industrial revolution principles allows them to get several benefits that were not available in traditional past models. For example, companies can now take an individual approach and personalize orders according to customers‘ preferences. Old factories are becoming “smart” and are starting to make unique products.

robotics in sustainable manufacturing

Not all companies with a long history will survive this wave of digital transformation. But those who can transform will benefit twice as much. Consumers are loyal to the brands they respect and are willing to stay with them if they switch to an individual format.

Conclusion

The revolutions modify production and the whole people’s life. Industry 4.0 has the potential to change the economy and human relationships, and even what it means to be human. After all, it involves the widespread introduction of artificial intelligence, robotization, the Internet of things, bio-, and neurotechnologies. The realization of this vision will be the main task and great responsibility for the next 50 years.

Biomass Cogeneration Systems

Biomass fuels are typically used most efficiently and beneficially when generating both power and heat through biomass cogeneration systems (also known as combined heat and power or CHP system). Biomass conversion technologies transform a variety of wastes into heat, electricity and biofuels by employing a host of strategies. Conversion routes are generally thermochemical or biochemical, but may also include chemical and physical.

The simplest way is to burn the biomass in a furnace, exploiting the heat generated to produce steam in a boiler, which is then used to drive a steam turbine. Advanced biomass conversion technologies include biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems, cofiring (with coal or gas), pyrolysis and second generation biofuels.

Biomass Cogeneration Systems

A typical biomass cogeneration (or biomass cogen) system provides:

  • Distributed generation of electrical and/or mechanical power.
  • Waste-heat recovery for heating, cooling, or process applications.
  • Seamless system integration for a variety of technologies, thermal applications, and fuel types into existing building infrastructure.

Biomass cogeneration systems consist of a number of individual components—prime mover (heat engine), generator, heat recovery, and electrical interconnection—configured into an integrated whole. The type of equipment that drives the overall system (i.e., the prime mover) typically identifies the CHP unit.

Prime Movers

Prime movers for biomass cogeneration units include reciprocating engines, combustion or gas turbines, steam turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells. These prime movers are capable of burning a variety of fuels, including natural gas, coal, oil, and alternative fuels to produce shaft power or mechanical energy.

Key Components

A biomass-fueled cogeneration facility is an integrated power system comprised of three major components:

  • Biomass receiving and feedstock preparation.
  • Energy conversion – Conversion of the biomass into steam for direct combustion systems or into biogas for the gasification systems.
  • Power and heat production – Conversion of the steam or syngas or biogas into electric power and process steam or hot water

Feedstock for Biomass Cogeneration Plants

The lowest cost forms of biomass for cogeneration plants are residues. Residues are the organic byproducts of food, fiber, and forest production, such as sawdust, rice husks, wheat straw, corn stalks, and sugarcane bagasse. Forest residues and wood wastes represent a large potential resource for energy production and include forest residues, forest thinnings, and primary mill residues.

combined-heat-and-power

Energy crops are perennial grasses and trees grown through traditional agricultural practices that are produced primarily to be used as feedstocks for energy generation, e.g. hybrid poplars, hybrid willows, and switchgrass. Animal manure can be digested anaerobically to produce biogas in large agricultural farms and dairies.

To turn a biomass resource into productive heat and/or electricity requires a number of steps and considerations, most notably evaluating the availability of suitable biomass resources; determining the economics of collection, storage, and transportation; and evaluating available technology options for converting biomass into useful heat or electricity.

Improve Your Home’s Energy Efficiency While Adding Value

You’ve spent the past year furnishing your home, selecting hand-crafted decor, and mixing and matching perfectly balanced wall colors. Everything appears perfect. But your utility bills tell a different story about your home. Your heating bill is through the roof and your electric bill never seems to come down no matter how good a job you do of turning off lights in rooms that aren’t occupied. Sound familiar? If it does, you’re not alone.

Of the $2,000 the average American spends paying for energy each year, $200 to $400 could be going to waste from drafts, air leaks, and outdated heating and cooling systems. If you are interested in reducing energy waste you should begin with a home energy evaluation. Also known as an energy audit, an energy evaluation will assess the way that your home consumes energy and identify what measures you can take to improve energy efficiency. From there, you will be able to choose which upgrades you would like to make.

how to improve the energy efficiency of your home

Upgrade Your Windows

The number one way to add value to your home while increasing the energy efficiency of your home is to upgrade your windows to double-pane Energy Star-rated windows. If you are going to make one feature of your home energy efficient you should prioritize your windows according to over 60% of real estate agents.

New energy-efficient windows help maintain a consistent temperature inside your home year-round. This alone can reduce your energy bills by as much as 15%. When it is time for you to sell your home, new Energy Star-rated windows will help you sell your home for a great price. According to the National Association of Home Builders, 89% of home buyers classified Energy Star windows as either an essential or desirable feature. A bonus that comes with installing Energy Star windows is the visual appeal that new windows add to both the interior and exterior of your home.

Insulate the Attic

Most homes have a layer of insulation in the attic, however, over time more insulation may need to be added. Heat loss through the attic is around 25% for most houses. Reducing that heat loss can save you money and create a less drafty home. To save approximately 15% on heating and cooling costs you can add spray foam insulation to your attic. A relatively affordable improvement that costs around $1,000 to $3,600 spray foam insulation recoups the majority of project costs with an average return on investment of 117%.

Upgrade to Energy Star Appliances

Outdated appliances that are over ten years old use up to 40% more energy than newer energy-efficient models. If you plan to upgrade your appliances you can begin in the kitchen. Appliance upgrades that are the most popular are refrigerators, dishwashers, stove/ovens, and microwaves. When you are looking for appliances choose ones that are stainless steel. According to 75% of real estate agents, stainless steel is the most popular finish among home buyers.

Add Solar Panels

When solar panels first became available to homeowners they were extremely expensive. Now, over a decade later the prices of solar panels have fallen by about 70%. On average, solar panels for residential homes cost between $15,000 and $25,000. Though the initial price tag of solar panels is high, so is their addition to your home’s value.

solar-leasing

For every $1 reduction in your annual energy cost, your home’s value increases by $20. So not only are you saving on your energy bills you are increasing your home’s value. Solar panel purchases are different in every area and so are the rebates and tax credits that may be available to you.

Upgrade Your Heating and Cooling Unit

In general, 43% of your home’s utility bill goes to heating and cooling. Keep your HVAC working efficiently by properly maintaining the unit and upgrading to a new one when it is time. The average lifespan of an HVAC system is 15 to 20 years. As HVAC ages, especially in the last five to ten years of its life, the system becomes less energy efficient. An older HVAC system will require more maintenance and will need repairs for parts of the system that are no longer functional.

air conditioner benefits

While installing an entirely new HVAC system will take extra money, it will benefit you when you are in your home and when you sell your home. A new HVAC unit with appropriate insulation can cut your energy use for heating and cooling by 20%. Houses with a new HVAC system have a home value increase of approximately 5-10% of the total value of the home.

Invest in a Smart Thermostat

A basic home thermostat will read and adjust the output of heat or cooling to match your desired temperature. If your thermostat is old or malfunctioning it may not read the temperature of your room correctly and wreak havoc on your heating and cooling costs. You can purchase and have a new thermostat installed or you can invest in a smart thermostat. Going a step beyond simply turning on and off your heating and cooling, a smart thermostat comes with remote sensors that are placed in different rooms around your house. These will ensure that your home can stay at a consistent temperature throughout your entire house.

Advanced smart thermostats will monitor your heating and cooling preference and after one week automatically set up a schedule to meet all your personalized needs. A smart thermostat will save homeowners anywhere from 8%-12% annually on their heating and cooling bills. They are also very popular among young homebuyers who are always interested in adding smart technology to their home.

Bottom Line

Small changes to your home can have a big impact on your energy consumption and your home’s overall value. Take the time to speak to a local real estate agent who can point you toward the best home improvements that will save you money on your monthly bills and add money to your home’s value.

How Can I Make My Business More Environmentally Friendly?

Climate change is quickly becoming a major issue. While it has long been a problem, we are starting to see the direct results of global warming. Each year is hotter than the last, we are losing wildlife, and many of the natural resources we need to survive are depleting faster than we can replenish them.

There is, unfortunately, no simple answer to this issue. There are many factors that impact the progression of climate change, meaning we can’t rely on a simple trick coming in at the last minute to save us.

Instead, we need to focus on doing everything we can across the board to slow climate change. With businesses being one of the biggest contributing factors in the current climate crisis, many business owners are curious how they can transition to more environmentally-friendly operations.

This article explores a few simple ways businesses can become greener and decrease their impact on the environment.

ways businesses can become greener

Consider Your Sourcing

One of the easiest ways a business can reduce its impact on the environment is to find green materials and manufacturers.

Many businesses rely heavily on materials that harm the environment. Plastic is a fantastic example. Plastic is made of petroleum, meaning that it is non-renewable. This alone makes it a bad choice for the environment. Compounding the problem, plastic doesn’t degrade. It lasts for an extremely long time.

This means we have to dispose of it by throwing it in landfills or the ocean. Once there, the plastic can cause further harm, trapping and killing wildlife or winding up in the food we eat and the water we drink.

Businesses that find more environmentally-friendly alternatives can radically reduce their impact on the environment.

This isn’t always viable though. Sometimes plastics and other somewhat harmful materials are crucial to producing a product.

In these cases, businesses should instead look to find the most responsibly-produced version of the material available. For instance, a business might source their plastic from recycling plants, allowing them to reduce the impact they have by using the material.

There’s also the manufacturing itself to consider. Choosing a factory or plant that runs on solar or another renewable energy reduces the net impact of your business operations on the environment.

Finally, there’s the shipping and distribution. Ordering more materials at once can help reduce the amount of fuel used for transportation. You can also find shipping services that emphasize environmentally-friendly practices.

All of these things can make your production process easier on the earth.

Work Remotely

We live in the age of the digital entrepreneur. People can now start and run a business entirely from the comfort of their own homes.

Not only does this have many monetary and lifestyle benefits, but it’s also an excellent way to reduce the environmental impact of your business.

Environmental Effects of Remote Work

Avoiding an unnecessary office rental means less electricity is used each day. The lights in your home office aren’t going to draw nearly the same energy as the lights in a commercial space.

Additionally, working from home lets you avoid commutes, keeping you from burning fuel when you drive to work.

Create Green Alternatives

Finally, business owners can make their businesses greener by creating green alternatives to existing products. There is growing demand for environmentally-friendly products. Unfortunately, there aren’t always green options on the market.

ecofriendly home

As a business owner, you are directly in control of your business offerings. You have the power to invest in developing green products.

Doing this can make your business better for the environment while also opening new market opportunities for you. It’s a true win-win situation.

11 Storytelling Tips To Make Your Videos Pop

Video marketing is an excellent way to reach your target audience. Have you considered creating a series of videos that can be used on social channels? It is a great way to establish an audience and build engagement over time.

Video posts can demonstrate your creativity, knowledge, and abilities as a marketer, using storytelling techniques that will keep your audience coming back for more. This article provides insight into eleven storytelling tips that you might find helpful when creating videos for use on social channels. It also includes some ideas for how you can use these tips to produce engaging content. Start editing videos on an Online Video Editor. It is the best and the cheapest way to start.

video marketing guide

Video Storytelling – A Complete Guide

1. Identify Your Goals and Target Audience

Carefully consider the goals you want to accomplish with your videos. What exactly do you want to convey? What do you want to make sure the audience understands? Make sure that your video aligns with your marketing objectives.

Also, consider who will be watching your video and what they already know. It will help you decide how to explain concepts and things in common terms rather than industry jargon.

2. Create a Storyboard

Storyboards are a great way to plan out the content of your videos by showing the audience exactly what you want them to see. By creating a draft, you can begin building your script, making sure the audience will follow along. You can then give it to your team for them to review and comment on.

3. Create Memorable Characters

Create characters that are easy to remember. One of the most important aspects of the video is the characters. They should instantly grab your viewers’ attention and will help them connect with the video. If they’re not interesting enough, viewers may get bored and

4. Create Emotional Value That Connects

Create videos that will interest your audience and that they will be compelled to watch. Each video should convey the emotion you want to inspire your audience, so they will feel something while watching it. It can be done by telling a good story, making good use of visuals, or by using only the right words to evoke feelings or emotions in your audience. Good visuals for your videos can be provided by Depositphotos.

5. Use Music Intelligently

Music can greatly enhance the emotional value that videos convey. Different songs evoke different emotions, but it is up to you which songs you use. Music can be used to create suspense, to make your audience feel anxious or threatened. Music can also be used to make them laugh or make them cry. You can also add music post video production by using an online video editor.

use of music in video marketing

Use the music in your video to enhance the emotion of the video, and help them immerse themselves in it more fully.

6. Use an Online Video Editor Trendy Video Editing

Video editing has become a very popular trend on YouTube and other social media. People use it to make videos more interesting and engaging. Although the trend may be growing, it is important to establish your style of video editing.

Don’t copy other people’s styles just because they’re popular, but do take inspiration from the popular video editing styles to help you create the distinctive style that will set you apart from others. You can find many trendy transitions on An online video editor. It will help you give direction to your video.

7. Pick A Video Style

When creating videos, it is important to choose a style for your videos. You can choose one that’s serious or one that’s funny. The most important part of any video marketing campaign is the goal.

If you want to drive web traffic, you’d probably use a different strategy than if you wanted to increase brand awareness. It depends on your overall objective and what your video needs to accomplish.

8. Add Humor To Your Videos

Videos that contain humor and entertainment tend to go viral more often. Humor can be used to make your videos more engaging and more appealing. Even if they’re not funny, adding comedy to your videos will help you stand out from the crowd by making your video stand out from the rest.

9. Use A Theme In Your Concept

You can play with colors and various themes on an Online Video Editor. Choosing a theme can help establish a consistent look for your videos. You’ll also be able to add special effects that will enhance the mood of your video and make it stand out from an otherwise blurry one. It will help establish an identity for your brand and make your videos more recognizable.

10. Keep Things Short And Snappy

Given that people often use their social media channels to relax and unwind, it is important to keep your videos short. It is ideal given the amount of time people are willing to spend on social media.

People are likely to be more engaged if you make your videos short, fast-paced, and fun; similarly, if you want your audience to engage with your video longer, make sure the content is engaging enough for them not to feel like scrolling away after a few seconds of watching it.

11. Understanding Video Impact On Various Social Media Platforms

When you’re creating videos for use on social media, you need to understand the media’s impact on different networks. Each platform is completely different from the others, and marketers need to understand this when deciding how to use videos.

video marketing tips

Videos work best on Instagram and Snapchat, and they can also be very effective on Facebook and Twitter. YouTube works well for longer videos, but most videos shared only get three seconds of viewing time before viewers move on to something else. It makes it essential for you to create high-quality content that gets people’s attention instantly so that many people will see your video.

You can find various video templates for different platforms on an Online Video Editor.

Conclusion

These tips can be implemented when making videos for any social media channel, but they are most suited to creating videos for Facebook and Twitter.

If you follow these 11 simple steps in creating videos for social media, you’re sure to get good results in executing your video marketing campaign. It would help if you learned to make the most of an online video editor to enhance your video furthermore.

There is a lot of money to be made in this niche, and if done right, video can help you build your brand and improve your conversions for whatever it is that you’re trying to promote.

Save Energy and Money – With a Heat Pump Water Heater

With the high cost of living today, everyone’s looking for a way to save money and if they can also save energy in the process and help the environment, even better. Installing a heat pump hot water heater is one way to do both at the same time. Here’s how:

benefits of heat pump water heater

What are Heat Pump Water Heaters?

Before you can understand how heat pump water heaters save money and energy, you need to know how they work and what makes them different from other types of water heaters.

Typical water heaters work by generating their own heat through electricity, which means they have to expend energy creating the heat that is then transferred to the water. Conversely, a heat pump water heater uses electricity to move heat from one place to another. Since it doesn’t have to create the heat, it’s up to three times more efficient than a traditional water heater.

A heat pump water heater draws in heat from the air around it, heats it to a higher temperature, and transfers it to the water in the storage tank. Heat pump water heaters come in various models, including standalone units, integrated units that include a storage tank, and retrofit units that can be added to a traditional storage water heater.

Saving Energy, Saving Money

The way in which heat pump water heaters save homeowners money is simple: they require less electricity to operate than traditional models. When you use less electricity, you spend less money on your energy bills. With a unit that is up to three times as efficient as a traditional electric water heater, you can save some serious cash each year.

Of course, this benefits the environment as well. When you use less electricity, you effectively reduce the demand for fossil fuels, which are a finite resource. While it might not seem like you’re doing a lot to help the environment just by changing the type of water heater you use, you are actually making a big difference. The more homeowners who make this switch, the better off the surrounding environment will be.

Climate Matters — Somewhat

Homeowners should be aware that heat pump hot water heaters don’t work as well in all climates. The year-round temperature should be between 40°F and 90°F so the pump has heat in the air that it can transfer to the water. In cold climates that dip below 40°F at least part of the year, heat pumps will not do a great job of heating the water.

In fact, by installing a heat pump in a space that has excess heat, such as in a furnace room or a stuffy attic, will increase its efficiency, since it has more heat to work with from the start. This doesn’t mean you can’t install a heat pump in a cooler climate because they will still work. They just won’t be as efficient as they are in a hot environment.

Conclusion

The next time you find yourself in the market for a new hot water heater, give a heat pump model a shot. You’ll be pleased with the savings you gain, both in money and in energy

The Function of Central Heating Radiators

Regular furnace tune-ups and maintenance just before the cold weather will help maintain your furnace and your HVAC system at top condition during the winter months. There are some common tips you can follow that will help ensure your furnace runs at peak efficiency through the long cold winter months:

heating-radiator

Help ensure your furnace runs

It is suggested that all of your HVAC equipment be cleaned and maintained before winter arrives. Beginning in early fall, have all of your cooling and heating equipment checked over thoroughly. Have a professional come out and check the furnace’s blower and ducts as well. In addition to ensuring that these are running smoothly, this will also help to prevent an increase in your home’s utility bills. If there is a problem in any of these components, you’ll need to replace them before winter fully sets in.

Finally, once your furnace has been turned back on, you’ll need to check your heat exchanger and duct for leaks. If the duct is leaking, then you may need to call a professional to take care of the leak or replace it with new ductwork. If your heater is not properly vented, then there’s a good chance that mold is growing behind the burner or behind the ductwork. You may actually be causing a foul smell from your furnace. Instead of calling a furnace service technician to come out and make you a furnace filter replacement, why not do it yourself?

First, get a flashlight and inspect your furnace’s ducts for blockages or clogs. A regular flashlight with disinfectant should work just fine. Take note of any spots that seem unusual where the air flows through. The spot could be a filter or the blower, depending on which system the furnace uses. If you see any areas with a thick black stain or smell, that’s a good indicator to clean or change the filter.

Getting furnace repairs

Once the furnace is checked and cleaned, you should conduct furnace service at least once a year. If you think you can’t do it yourself, call a reputable company in your area to get the job done. The costs for getting furnace repairs will vary depending on the make and model of your furnace and even the age of it. If you have an older model, you will probably spend more money than if you have a newer one. There are different ways to save on furnace service costs, so make sure to ask a professional about any suggestions you might have.

Remember that the experts say it is important to have regular maintenance on your furnace. However, this is not something you should take for granted. It is important to remember that the malfunctioning of your furnace could be due to the fact that there is a dirty duct where the oil or air gap gets filled up and causes the furnace to work hard to push out the air. In this case, hiring the services of a skilled and experienced furnace repairman in Calgary is essential so you don’t have to worry too much about the furnace’s condition.

If the problem with the burner is due to the presence of mold and mildew on the exterior portion of the heat exchanger, you can safely clean it yourself using a disinfectant spray made of chlorine and water. The spray must be used carefully so as not to damage the internal components of the heat exchanger and the burner. You should wear protective gloves so that you don’t spray the chemicals directly into the eyes. You can spray the area in a circular motion to avoid leaving streaks. This may also help in keeping the lining of the heat exchanger clear and free from dust, which is a common cause of friction.

Cleaning of heat exchangers by furnace service technicians is often recommended by manufacturers as an additional measure to prevent loss of refrigerant gas and to keep temperatures constant. A clean line allows for easier access when maintenance is necessary and prevents potential damage to the heating system itself. The cleaning process can take place during the summer, at night, or on days when there is little else that should be done.

Central heating radiators are available in a wide variety of styles to match any decor and to meet any budget. Whether a radiator is new or old, its function should be the first thing to be considered before buying. The more that the space heated by the radiator is heated by electricity, the more efficient the unit will be. Radiators will also heat the entire room, which could be a major plus depending on your budget.

The Role of Biofuel in Low-Carbon Transport

Biofuels offer a solution to climate change that shouldn’t go ignored. In fact, the amount of biofuel used in low-carbon transport has to increase by a factor of seven in order to prevent climate catastrophe, a recent report on 1.5C warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states. The report also places biofuels in the same league of importance as electric vehicles when it comes to replacing unsustainable fossil fuels by 2050.

Biofuels are increasingly being used to power vehicles around the world

Electric cars: benefits and limitations

A typical gas-powered car emits roughly one pound of carbon dioxide per mile traveled. On the other hand, electric cars release zero tailpipe emissions. However, light-duty passenger vehicles represent only 50% of the energy demand in the transportation sector worldwide.

Heavy road vehicles and air, sea, and rail transport make up the rest — electrification of this remaining 50% would be an expensive task. Additionally, demand for transport is expected to increase in the future. Vehicles will need to use even less energy by 2050 to ensure the global transport sector’s total energy demand rises no higher than current levels (100 exajoules).

Biofuel: a necessary solution

Several sustainable, carbon-neutral synthetic fuels are currently in developmental and demonstration stages. For example, synfuels can be produced from carbon dioxide and water via low-carbon electricity. However, this also requires cheap and low-carbon power systems (similar to the ones already running in Quebec and Iceland).

Biodiesel

In 2013, Audi was the first automaker to establish an electrofuel plant — it cost €20M and produces 3.2 MW of synthetic methane from 6 MW of electricity. Additionally, synthetic biofuels can be made from woody residues and crop wastes, which has a lighter environmental footprint than biofuels made from agricultural crops.

Examples of eco-friendly cars

While biofuels continue to be developed, there are plenty of electric cars on the market right now — all of which can help us reduce our individual carbon footprints. For example, the Hyundai Kona Electric is an impressive electric car. This vehicle offers sleek exterior styling, plenty of modern tech features, and has an impressive range of 258 miles in between charges. The price starts at $36,950. Alternatively, the Nissan LEAF is another eco-friendly model priced from $29,990. It’s powered by an 80kW electric motor and runs for 100 miles per charge.

Electric cars and synthetic biofuels are both valuable technological changes. Focusing on developing both of these sustainable options should take utmost priority in the fight against climate change.

How To Help College Students With ASD?

Autism is basically a disease or rather a lifelong disability that a person develops with and normally appears in the early stages of childhood. On the other hand, ASD is more or less the same as autism but differs because ASD is brought about by differences that occur within the brain. It greatly impacts a person’s relationship, communication, social skills, and self-regulation.

Tips to To Help College Students With ASD

The common signs of autism include: delayed communication skills and speech, having a problem of understanding the emotions of other people, they greatly relying on routines and rules, and getting mad at minor changes. People with ASD usually have their way of learning, paying attention or even moving. How they perceive senses, how they move and learn, and how they cope with strategies are normally affected, d this might cause hidden challenges. Don’t freak to pay for research papers.

From the characteristics stated above, we can be able to know some of the issues these students might be facing. And with that, we can derive ways in which we can comfortably accommodate them.

First, they have a problem communicating: they find difficulties expressing and receiving communication. Some of these challenges may be minor. If not well looked they might easily lead to misunderstandings of how they receive communication; they may not understand jokes and sarcasm or might take longer to process verbal exchanges.

On the expressive part, they may find it hard to initiate conversations, turn-taking issues, stick to the topic or cannot follow the communication protocol. To cater to this, give them enough time to express their verbal cues, give them the teacher’s notes and when administering tests, provide them with a study guide on the same. It would also help the student if their teacher sought clarification from them instead of just making assumptions.

Movement skills

Can be affected by either fine or gross motor skills. When the fine motor is affected, activities such as writing, turning pages, drawing, playing instruments, using utensils, manipulating tiny objects and using keys and locks are affected. On the other hand, activities such as sitting, walking, running, swimming, and balancing might be affected when gross motor skills are affected. How a person places their body on the ground is a major concern when walking cause balance affects body movements and might cause difficulties with navigation.

To accommodate autistic students, in this case, make sure that learning takes place one step after the other. Ensure that you use models and other learning resources and provide extra time for assignments and tests. Also, for students taking physical education classes, ensure that you consider further accommodations that might prevent further complications. You can also allow them to use desktop computers to do their classwork, tests and assignments.

Learning styles

Learners with autism mostly have a very uneven learning style. They often do perfectly well in a non-conventional way. Their rote memory is normally long-term and excellent. They are normally said to be right-brained thinkers. To perform well in class, they first have to develop a liking and trust for that teacher. They suffer from attention problems. Repetition is boring; they wouldn’t want to hear it again once taught something.

Their sequential learning is very poor. Despite all these, these students e believed to perform pretty well in their academics. They produce outstanding grades and so the need to further their studies beyond secondary school level. To accommodate them, you need to give them extra time for submission of tests and assignments and provide for the use of calendars because students with ASD work best under organization tools. Always provide reinforcement and motivation at each opportunity. Use demonstrations, visuals and other teaching aids, for example, review sheets.

Coping skills

They are mostly affected by stress and anxiety arising from communication expectations, social anxiety and sensory sensitivities. These might force the student to portray certain behaviors that might be considered rude and disruptive. To students who have autism, this behavior is just okay and is calming. When they’re under stress, they might do activities out of the norm to relieve themselves. Some activities include chewing clothes, flapping hands repetitively, waving, pacing or even teaching topics they love the most.

They may also decide to quit a situation during or before the suggested time. To cater to or accommodate them, ask them if they need any help or want anything. Do not disrupt them unless the activity is extremely disturbing because it is not their intention. Teachers and lecturers should also be prepared to receive them. Allow them to have their sensory objects or anything they’d think is of help to them.

Social skills

Class discussion and group work is necessary and are equally as important when it comes to earning a good grade. This necessitates the application of social skills. Socially these students have a problem of understanding other people’s opinions, they cannot maintain eye contact, and at times they cannot share their space. They cannot interact well with their colleagues and cannot negotiate well with others or work in pairs and groups.

beating procrastination

To accommodate them, give them breaks at certain intervals and allow them to use certain objects that will act as a ‘ social buffering.’ They will at least have something to distract them, for instance, a book or a computer. Also, respect their eye contact level and provide written rules that you’ll use when asking and answering questions.

Sensory differences

Some of them suffer from extremely high sensitivity input, while others have extremely low sensitivity input to take in what is in the environment into their five senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. Some of them might suffer from synesthesia. Here the actual information is perceived differently and not the intended one. Florescent lights that produce different colors in a classroom setup may cause ‘overload.’ Some sounds are perceived to be painful, such as dragging desks.

Some ASD students are allergic to certain scents, of maybe perfumes and deodorant. In this case, to accommodate them, allow them to wear hats, sunglasses and tinted lenses for lighting and earphones and earplugs for painful sounds.

Biogas-to-Biomethane Conversion Technologies

Raw biogas contains approximately 30-45% of CO2, and some H2S and other compounds that have to be removed prior to utilization as natural gas, CNG or LNG replacement. Removing these components can be performed by several biogas upgrading techniques. Each process has its own advantages and disadvantages, depending on the biogas origin, composition and geographical orientation of the plant. The biogas-to-biomethane conversion technologies taken into account are pressurized water scrubbing (PWS), catalytic absorption/amine wash (CA), pressure swing absorption (PSA), highly selective membrane separation (MS) and cryogenic liquefaction (CL) which are the most common used biogas cleanup techniques.

biogas-biomethane

The Table below shows a comparison of performance for these techniques at 8 bar (grid) injection.

Table:  Comparison of performance for various upgrading techniques (result at 8 bar) (Robert Lems, 2010) , (Lems R., 2012)

  PWS CA PSA MS CL Unit
Produced gas quality*2 98 99 97-99 99 99.5 CH4%
Methane slip 1 0.1-0.2 1-3 0.3-0.5 0.5 %
Electrical use 0.23-0.25 0.15-0.18 0.25 0.21-0.24 0.35 kWh/Nm3 feed
Thermal energy use 0,82-1.3 kWth/Nm3 prod.
Reliability / up time 96 94 94 98 94 %
Turn down ratio 50-100 50-100 85-100 0-100 75-100 %
CAPEX Medium Medium Medium Low High  
Operation cost Low Medium Medium Low High  
Foot print Large Large Medium Small Large  
Maintenance needed Medium Medium+ Medium+ Low High  
Ease of operation Medium Medium+ Medium Easy Complex  
Consumables &

waste streams

AC*3/Water AC*3/amines AC*3/ absorbents AC*3/None AC*3/None  
References Many Many Medium Medium Very few  

*2 If no oxygen of nitrogen is present in the raw biogas

*3 Activated carbon (AC) consumption is depending on the presence of certain pollutants (trace components) within the raw biogas.

From the above Table, it can be concluded that the differences between technologies with respect to performance seem to be relatively small. However, some “soft factors” can have a significant impact on technology selection. For example, water scrubber technology is a broadly applied technology. The requirement for clean process water, to make up for discharge and condensation, could be a challenging constraint for remote locations.

Moreover, PWS systems are prone to biological contamination (resulting in clogged packing media and foaming), especially when operated at elevated temperatures. Without additional preventative measures this will result in an increase of operational issues and downtime.

Amine scrubbers are a good choice when surplus heat is available for the regeneration of the washing liquid. The transport and discharge of this washing liquid could however be a burden, as well as the added complexity of operation. With respect to cryogenic Liquefaction (CL) one may conclude that, this technology has a questionable track-record, is highly complex, hard to operate, and should therefore not be selected for small-medium scale applications.

Both PSA and MS provide a “dry” system, both technologies operate without the requirement for a solvent/washing liquid, which significantly simplifies operation and maintenance. Distinctive factor between these technologies is that the membrane based system operates in a continuous mode, while the PSA technology is based on columns filled with absorption materials which operate in a rotating/non-continuous mode.

Moreover, the membrane based system has a more favourable methane slip, energy consumption and turndown ratio. The biggest advantage over PSA however, is that membrane systems do not require any transport of absorbents, its ease of operation and superior up-time.

Main disadvantage of membrane systems are that they are sensitive to pollution by organic compounds, which can decrease efficiency. However, by applying a proper pre-treatment (generally based on activated carbon and condensation) in which these compounds are eliminated, this disadvantage can be relatively easy nullified.

Based on membrane technology, DMT Environmental Technology, developed the Carborex ®MS. A cost-effective plug and play, containerized (and therefore), easy to build in remote locations) biogas upgrading system. The Carborex ®MS membrane system has relatively little mechanical moving components (compared to other upgrading technologies) and therefore, ensures stability of biomethane production, and consequently, the viability of the biogas plant operation.

Moreover, its design for ease of operation and robustness makes this technological platform perfectly suitable for operation at locations with limited experience and expertise on handling of biogas plants.

Impression of a membrane system; Carborex ®MS – by courtesy of DMT

Impression of a membrane system; Carborex ®MS – by courtesy of DMT

Conclusions

Capture of biogas through application of closed ponds or AD’s is not only a necessity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, it is also a method of optimizing liquid waste treatment and methane recovery. Billions of cubic meters of biomethane can be produced on a yearly basis, facilitating a significant reduction of fossil fuel dependency.

Moreover, upgrading of raw biogas-to-biomethane (grid, CNG or LNG quality) provides additional utilization routes that have the extra advantage to be independent of existing infrastructure. To sum up, membrane based technology is the best way forward due to its ease of operation, robustness and the high quality of the end-products.

References

  • Lems R., D. E. (2012). Next generation biogas upgrading using high selective gas separation membranes. 17th European Biosolids Organic Resources Conference. Leeds: Aqua Enviro Technology .
  • Robert Lems, E. D. (2010). Making pressurized water scrubbing the ultimate biogas upgrading technology with the DMT TS-PWS® system. Energy from Biomass and Waste UK . London: EBW-UK .

Co-Authors: H. Dekker and E.H.M. Dirkse (DMT Environmental Technology)

Note: This is the final article in the special series on ‘Sustainable Utilization of POME-based Biomethane’ by Langerak et al of DMT Environmental Technology (Holland). The first two articles can be viewed at these links

http://www.bioenergyconsult.com/biomethane-utilization/

http://www.bioenergyconsult.com/pome-biogas/