About Salman Zafar

Salman Zafar is the CEO of BioEnergy Consult, and an international consultant, advisor and trainer with expertise in waste management, biomass energy, waste-to-energy, environment protection and resource conservation. His geographical areas of focus include Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Salman has successfully accomplished a wide range of projects in the areas of biogas technology, biomass energy, waste-to-energy, recycling and waste management. Salman has participated in numerous national and international conferences all over the world. He is a prolific environmental journalist, and has authored more than 300 articles in reputed journals, magazines and websites. In addition, he is proactively engaged in creating mass awareness on renewable energy, waste management and environmental sustainability through his blogs and portals. Salman can be reached at salman@bioenergyconsult.com or salman@cleantechloops.com.

Impact of Philosophy on the Development of Environmental Ethics

Philosophy can be defined as the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, and/or reality, and/or existence. It can be looked at even more so as a study when you consider it to be an academic discipline. The practice of philosophy has had a deep impact on our lives since the time that subject came to be recognized as one and soon after became a discipline.

This impact continues to this day, with the practice being intricately connected with how we live. Here we take a look at how Environmental Ethics tells us how to ensure that every living being on the planet gets its fair chance to survive and its relation to the study of philosophy. There has definitely been a shift in the way we look at our world and how our actions affect it. Fortunately when we say “our” we are finally taking into account all living beings, rather than just humans.

development of environmental ethics

Philosophy in Everyday Lives

Socrates had made a claim that the only life worth living is the “examined” one.  Philosophy, and in turn, philosophers, tend to examine the increasingly mysterious, or even esoteric, phenomena. A few of these can include the complexities of language, or free will, or even morality.  It is easy to find information like this by searching for essays on key concepts in philosophy, online. There are hordes of free essay samples available at present.

Now, despite examining the aforementioned phenomena, philosophers still have a knack for taking intuitive assumptions to uncover their inner workings.  In the end, self-reflection and examination can give you a frustrating day, from the enjoyable one you might have been enjoying.

Every day, human beings lose their grip on consciousness as they fall asleep. It might be comparable to our understanding of the human brain and the understanding of ecology. Despite there being a lot of papers released, in order to explain a great deal about the dryland ecosystems, it knows little about those residing in the ocean deep recesses.

Science has not yet uncovered the specific reasons behind sleep and the exact mechanics of it. It’s amazing to think that we are yet to know most of the mechanics behind an activity the average human being spends a third of life performing. Interestingly even waking up, holds an uncanny resemblance to the awakening of the mind which can be regarded as – “the true aim of philosophy”.

What is Environmental Ethics?

The segment of environmental philosophy looking to extend ethics’ traditional boundaries, from only including humans to including the entire nonhuman world – this is arguably the proper “environmental ethics definition”, in the true sense. It exerts a lot of influence on a vast range of disciplines, like sociology, theology, ecology, etc. It is always trying to include the rights of all nonhuman living beings in all of our ethical and moral values.

Increasing Popularity of Philosophy

Philosophy as a discipline and as a way of thinking has gained massive popularity. It has gone on to feature among the 100 most popular majors among students. People are slowly starting to truly appreciate why philosophy is important and hence there are so many young students selecting this subject. This is evident from the fact that the number of graduates of the subject has taken a 61% hike, from the same time, a decade back.

Environmental Ethics and Its Practice in Different Countries

According to Environmental ethics, our behavior should be based on a number of ethical values, guiding our approach toward other living beings. Despite the human race being considered the primary species, other animals and/or plants are not less important. They deserve their fair share of existence. Environmental issues can be seen posing a host of global challenges, thus, in turn, raising skepticism regarding the topic of sustainability of nature.

impact of philosophy and environmental ethics

As a result, a number of countries have been seen implementing green practices to keep improving, and do their part for the environment. For example, there have been government policies implemented in Norway that ban deforestation. This protects the forest ecosystem and the animals living there. Finland generates a lot of its power from renewable energy sources to ensure that the environment and living beings in it are not harmed. You can easily find out more about such practices even with a bit of light reading.

Conclusion

It is unquestionable that over the past few years there has been a trend of a considerably increasing concern for our environment. It is a change in mindset that is occurring in people from all corners of the globe. People have started to look at the impact that all of our actions have upon environmental ethics and judge it more minutely. As a result, it is safe to say that the field will be here for quite a long time in the future. Not only that, on the basis of its present popularity, the study of philosophy and the environment, and ethical practices is only looking to gain momentum.

How Blue Collars Are Turning Into Green Collars

If there’s one thing that many people don’t spend a lot of time thinking about, it is the growing link between traditionally blue-collar jobs and green-collar technologies. However, this relationship is becoming quite a trend and there are many ways that these traditional businesses can take advantage of the burgeoning green revolution.

1. Use Government Money and Incentives

Before investing in any new technology or making any modifications to existing technology, review what free money opportunities are available to you. Everything from government grants to tax incentives is within reach of many companies. This is especially true in the automotive industry, where the focus is growing on manufacturing vehicles that do not rely on gasoline.

Green Finance

2. Be Realistic

When looking for ways to make your truck fleet more environmentally friendly, you have to be realistic with what you can do. There are many small things you can do to change behavior within the fleet itself that can change all aspects of fleet management.

Such things as improving driver training and making routes more efficient can all drastically reduce the carbon footprint that the company leaves. You can read about many green options in an online fleet management guide located here.

3. Green Power Sources

The blue-collar sector has long encouraged factories to reduce their energy usage and this viewpoint is only increasing. Alternative power sources such as wind or solar power not only reduces energy usage but have a positive effect on the bottom line of the company in question.

When you are dealing with investors and stockholders, saving money is definitely something in which you’ll want to partake.

green tech

4. Cloud Computing

For those blue-collar businesses that rely heavily on multiple servers to process their computerized data needs, the constant running of multiple servers can prove to be quite costly. This is why many are looking into cloud computing to solve their data center needs.

By virtualizing most of their computing, they are able to run only one server while everything else runs multiple images of numerous operating systems.

5. Reducing Waste

Many factories became experts in waste reduction a long time ago and other blue-collar businesses are now finally paying attention. Everything from recycling wastewater to the practice of reusing materials that are normally cast-off is being embraced in attempts to both save money and increase efficiency.

waste reduction in businesses

6. Green Replacements

When replacing either manufacturing equipment or office equipment that has broken down and no longer useful, many companies are choosing to purchase green alternatives in their place. This is a simple way to increase the green status of your company without exhibiting undue effort all at once.

Whether it be simple replacements such as LED lightbulbs or more specific acts such as installing ergonomic workstations for production line workers, there are numerous ways to become and stay green.

7. Listen To Your Customers

Your customers will almost certainly be among the first to let you know what changes you should be making. Today’s consumer is much more conscientious that the customers of the past and they place a high value on businesses that are actively working to become more environmentally responsible.

3 Major Benefits of Using Solar Inverter as a Primary Source of Residential Energy

In recent years, the solar inverter market has witnessed a surge in demand. That’s because  people have started realizing the benefits of switching to solar energy for residential as well as commercial use. Even the central and state governments are stressing on the need to switch to solar energy. They are even offering various subsidies for installing solar power systems on both residential and commercial properties. So why do you think the government is encouraging the shift from local grids to solar energy. Well, in this post, we discuss just that. Listed below are three important reasons/benefits of using a solar inverter as a primary source source of residential energy. Let’s read on:

benefits of solar inverter

1. It is a clean source of energy

While one of the reasons for shifting from fossil fuels to solar is that fossil fuels are exhaustible and are not going to last forever, an even more significant reason for this shift is that unlike fossil fuels that cause a lot of pollution, solar energy is a clean and green source of energy. It helps reduce the carbon footprint which is the need of the hour. And this reflects in the way governments across the globe have been encouraging renewable sources of energy.

India, too, is not an exception, and that is evident from the fact that the Indian government is providing subsidies for installing solar inverter systems. And the good thing is that many people across the country have already started installing solar inverter systems on their residential and commercial properties. So, if you too want to do your bit towards making the Earth a better place to live, go solar!

2. It helps save a lot of money

Well, if you have been worried about the initial investment cost of installing a solar inverter system, we already told you that the Government of India provides subsidies for installing solar inverter systems. And if this reason is not enough let us also tell you that one of the major benefits of installing a solar inverter system is that you are able to generate electricity for free. That’s because the solar energy from the Sun is a free source of energy.

Also, the yearly savings that most households make after installing solar inverter systems are such that they are able to recover their initial cost of investment within 6-7 years. And since the average lifespan of a solar inverter system is anywhere between 15 to 20 years, it means that one is able to make substantial returns on their investment once they have recovered their initial investment cost.

Now isn’t that an awesome reason for you to take the plunge?

3. It provides relief from long and frequent power cuts

Here’s another major benefit of installing a solar inverter system. If you live in an area where there are long and frequent power cuts and even the normal UPS inverter is not of much help, then installing a solar inverter system will help you reduce your dependence on your local grid. In fact, solar inverter systems have gained a lot of popularity in areas where there’s no local grid.

For example, you may be aware of the latest trend of people buying vacation homes at faraway locations. Most of these locations lack a local grid, and therefore, people rely on solar inverter systems for their energy needs.

Ready to make a move?

If you haven’t shifted to solar already, it’s high time you make a move. We suggest you to get in touch with the solar experts’ team at a reputable brand such as Luminous India and they would walk you through the process of choosing the right solar inverter system for your residential property.

Sustainable Waste Management in the Construction Industry

Construction is booming worldwide driven by population growth, urbanization and increased need for dwellings, business sites and commercial spaces with volume output expected to grow by 85% to $15.5 trillion by 2030. Unfortunately, it also means that there is a serious challenge to implement sustainable waste management in the construction industry.

It is not only the duty of waste management contractors and companies to ensure sustainable collection and management of construction wastes responsibly but also individuals who are doing their own DIY projects at home. Without a concerted effort to collect, recycle and dispose waste properly, there is real danger to the environment that will eventually spill over to people, vegetation, and wildlife.

Role of education and behavior change

On a global scale, over half of the world’s population have no access to a steady collection of trash. Illegal dumpsites hold over 40% of the world’s waste. It’s not only the lack of facilities but also inadequate information that is contributing to waste-related pollution all over the world.

Sustainable waste collection begins by educating people about reducing, reusing and recycling efforts or the 3R approach. From education and information campaigns to changes in behavior and attitudes, when people know and are aware of the benefits of reducing, segregating, collection, reusing and recycling, they become a collective and conscious effort.

Right materials and equipment

The availability of skips, bins, collection containers, and recycling centers also has a great influence on how much a person and their communities recycle and reuse or dispose of construction waste properly. For people who are able to hire a 20 yard dumpster in West Chester, Lancaster, Norrington, Reading or any other town in the world, it is easier and convenient to remove construction and renovation waste knowing that the company will dispose of it properly by bringing it to approved landfills.

What is also important is for clients, contractors and recycling specialists to put their heads together to minimize construction waste according to Oyenuga and Bhamidimarri.

General awareness to reduce dumping is increasing as about 35% of construction and demolition waste (CDW) goes to landfills. Construction rubbish can contain lots of toxic materials such as lead, asbestos, and other dangerous substances that can find their way into the soil, groundwater, and the air that we breathe.

The construction industry has also recognized that reusing components and materials in making or erecting structures is sustainable and saves money. Most of the parts of construction consist of wood, sticks, steel, and concrete. Rubble can be compacted and reused. Demolition is carefully considered if renovation can be carried out.

The Way Forward

Waste generated from construction sites need not be a nuisance to the environment. With the right education to increase awareness to reduce/recycle/reuse, provision of collection and recycling points and the newer and better techniques to reuse construction materials, sustainable management of construction waste can become a reality.

Water Hardness: Knowing and Calculating The Perfect “Mineral Water”

Water hardness seems to be a common problem among households worldwide, but there seems to be a certain ignorance as to what this is. What this does is it does more long-term harm despite the beneficial uses. Being a problem of this nature, we must know how to calculate water hardness level and what the desired level of water hardness is.

What is Water Hardness?

Ironically, water hardness has nothing to do with water turning into a solid block of ice or anything involving a transition into something solid. However, the reason for this name is because of what is actually in the water we use or drink.

Sometimes the water we use seems to be different despite the whole house being a general example of cleanliness. For example, one may notice some minerals that are present in cooking dishes or the more obvious scum that seems to be resistant to cleaning.

The simple reason for this would be the existence of “hard water” or water that appears to be infused with undesirable metals, the more prominent ones being calcium and magnesium. These are usually caused by water travelling through places filled with soil and rock, but some have found that water from wells is a breeding ground for this kind of water.

how to calculate water hardness

As a simple experiment to test if your home does have hard water, you may take a bottle and fill it up to one-third of it, and you should apply a few drops of soap. From here, shake or mix the solution well, and naturally, the mixture should be clear with bubbles at the top.

However, if it turns milky and lacks bubbles, your water is hard. The water does not cause any severe problems for the consumer, but these will cause some pipes, appliances, and other parts of the house that use water.

How do you calculate water hardness?

Before knowing how to calculate the possible hardness present in your water, you need to know that there are two types of this hardness, temporary and permanent. Since we want to know more about water hardness, measuring hard water would mean we would be looking for permanent hardness.

This, unlike temporary hardness, cannot be removed by heating the undesirable aspects of the water.

An option for calculating water hardness is to manually calculate the hardness using calcium and magnesium values. However, you would need to submit samples to the lab to receive the exact amount of the minerals found in the water. Nevertheless, it would require the use of equations.

The general equation would be as follows:

CaCO3 (Total Permanent Hardness) = Mg (mg/L) as CaCO3 + Ca (mg/L) as CaCO3

The general equation is the sum of both the hardness of Magnesium and Calcium. However, Magnesium and Calcium hardness is determined by another equation in the form of:

Ca or Mg hardness mg/L as CaCO3 / Equivalent Weight of CaCO3 = Ca or Mg in mg/L / Equivalent Weight of Ca or Mg

Calculating the equivalent weight would involve dividing the atomic weight by the valency, and these hold values. For example, calcium would be 20.04 while Magnesium would value at 12.15.

For Calcium Carbonate, this requires the molecular weight, which would be set at 50.04.

In sum, we must first determine the hardness first of the minerals, using the given values of Calcium or Magnesium in milligrams per litre and the set equivalent weights from the mineral being calculated and Calcium Carbonate.

Once with the two values, they may be added up to form the total permanent hardness of Calcium Carbonate.

Since one calculates for any concerning value, it would also be wise to know the desired water hardness level. It is important to remember that water still possesses minerals that are helpful to the body. However, much like everything in daily life, an excess can cause future problems.

The healthy amount would be at 10 to 50 parts per million of the Calcium Carbonate, while the slightly hard would range from 50 to a hundred. The actual hard water is seen when the amount hits 100, while 200 parts is an amount in which it is incredibly excessive.

Negative Impacts of Hard Water

As mentioned before, hard water does not have any serious problems when consumed by drinking.

This could be a great help for the body as it can give minerals that it could lack. However, this causes much more visible problems when used as bathwater as it interferes with soaps and other cleaning regiments, eventually leaving the skin to become irritated and dry.

disadvantages of hard water

These also affect pipes, boilers, and other water-using items in the household as this could affect their daily functions.

We can appreciate the use of hardness as a benefit, but this causes more damage in the long term. Therefore, it is important to be aware and stop this at the earliest possible moment.

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Everything You Should Know About Car Transmission System

A car transmission, also known as the transmission system, is the mechanism by which power created by the engine is transferred to the driving wheels. This part of the vehicle is the most important in determining the power and functionality of your engine systems. The two types of transmissions include automatic transmission and manual transmission. Use hpi to check the transmission type of any car, van or light-commercial vehicle.

A manual transmission requires the driver to complete extra steps of selecting and engaging the gear ratios. In contrast, mechanical efforts are minimized in an automatic transmission, and different speeds are obtained automatically.

If you are wondering how a car transmission works, it all depends on the type of transmission. However, regardless of the type, the answer to what a transmission does is to enable the gear ratio between the vehicle’s engine and drive wheels to adjust as the vehicle speeds up and slows down. When not in motion, the transmission disconnects the drive wheels from the engine. So let’s dive deeper into details on how manual and automatic transmission work.

working of car transmission system

All you need to know about manual transmission

A manual transmission is a manual gearbox or stick-shift or standard transmission class of transmission where the driver literally uses a stick shift to change gears. Changing the gears involves releasing the clutch disc through a third pedal located on the left side of the break. Then select the chosen gear and engage the clutch again. If the driver frequently engages the clutch slowly, the disc will wear out early. If the driver engages the clutch too quickly, the engine will stall.

Components of a manual gearbox

Narrowing down the various parts and components of the gearbox will help you understand the complex way a manual transmission works. Some significant features of a manual gearbox include

  1. The clutch and clutch pedal: Consisting of various small parts, the clutch transfers the engine torque to the transmission. The clutch pedal is a piece of gear that is hydraulically controlled. When you depress, it disengages the clutch.
  2. Flywheel: Normally circular in shape and used to send the engine torque to the clutch disc, which interacts with the smooth surface of the flywheel.
  3. Collar and selector fork: An arm-like-looking piece of gear that aids in moving the collars through the output shaft. By locking the collar to a specific gear, you can always select different other gears. This results in the transmission of torque from the layshaft to the output shaft.
  4. Synchronizers: Helps the collar and the gear engage with each other and importantly matches their speed if there is a difference.
  5. Output shaft and Layshaft: The output shaft’s gears mesh with the lay shaft’s gears when one receives the engine power first.
  6. Gears: Gear often comes in different sizes in a manual gearbox. Large gearwheels contain more teeth and offer more torque to reduce the car’s speed, whereas small gears provide less torque to your car so that it can run at a higher speed.

How a manual transmission works

  • Before switching the vehicle’s key on, you need to press the clutch pedal down to disengage the clutch. This cuts the power between the engine’s input shaft and the transmission and ensures that the engine is alive before powering the vehicle.
  • Shift the gearshift to the first gear so that the gear shift can move towards the latter one. The first gear has a connection to the layshaft, which is connected to the engine input file via another gear.
  • The synchronizer collar connected to the shifting fork helps the driving gear in the transportation of power to the output shaft and matches their speed if there is any difference.
  • You now need to apply slight pressure on the gas pedal and then take your foot off the clutch. This reconnects the gearbox and the engine making your vehicle start moving.
  • You now need to repeat the same process of changing the gear so that you can speed up or slow down the car.

 

car transmission system

Generally, bade-model vehicles are fitted with a 5-speed manual transmission, while pricey vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission such as the rebuilt nv5600 transmission.

All you need to know about automatic transmission

With an automatic transmission, things are simplified as compared to a manual transmission. There is neither a clutch pedal nor a gear shift in an automatic transmission vehicle. Once the transmission is put into drive, all other things are automatic.

Components of an automatic transmission

To help understand what happens in an automatic transmission, let us look at the specific parts of an automatic transmission.

  1. Transmission casing: Houses all parts of the transmission.
  2. Torque Converter: Transmits to the transmission input shaft from the engine. It also helps in the multiplication of engine torque output
  3. Planetary gears: This allows automatic increase and decrease of the gear ratios.

How automatic transmission works

  • The engine dispatches power to the torque converter’s pump
  • The pump receives the power and, through the transmission fluid, sends it to the torque converter’s turbine
  • Through the stator, the transmission fluid is sent back to the pump
  • The stator multiplies power and sends it back to the turbine
  • The turbine is normally connected to the central shaft, which is also connected to the transmission.
  • The turbine then spins the shaft spins dispatching power to the first planetary gear
  • The planetary gear arrangements determine of power transmitted to the rest of the drive
  • Power from the torque converter will either make the ring gear, the sun gear, or the planetary carrier of the planetary gear system stay stationary or move.

Stages of automatic transmission

  • Park(P): Locks the transmission, restricting the vehicle from moving
  • Reverse(R): Puts the car in reverse gear, making the car move backward
  • Neutral(N): disconnects the transmission from the wheel
  • Drive(D): allows the vehicle to move and can accelerate through a range of gears
  • Low(L): allows you to lower your speed and move on middy or hilly areas

Now, as you cruise down the freeways and feel the car shifting gears, you will have an idea of what is exactly taking place under the hood. It’s all about the transmission, but if you need to get a new one it’s all about cheap online transmissions! However, if you need money to pay for one, you could always use your vehicle to get extra cash! Find out how much money you could get with a car title loan.

Creating a Better Waste Management Plan for Your Business

People are more environmentally conscious than ever, and want to do their part to help reduce waste. Not only are they themselves eco-friendly, but they also want the companies they purchase from and support to do their part as well. Nearly every wyoming llc will produce some type of waste, despite their best intentions. Even things like offices can create a lot of waste. This waste can have a terrible impact on the environment, for everything from wildlife to our own public health.

However, producing zero waste isn’t always possible for companies (at least not currently). As a result, it is more important than ever to have a good waste management strategy for your business. These plans help you deal with responsibly getting rid of waste, as well as reducing it where possible.

Unfortunately, crafting one isn’t always easy. Thankfully, we are here to help. This article is going to go over some great tips for creating a better waste management plan for your business.

Do Your Due Diligence

First and foremost, you need to perform an adequate amount of due diligence. While some companies might think they know all of the waste that they are producing, that isn’t always the case. There could be remnants of waste on your property from years ago, which could be damaging the soil and the environment.

In order to truly get the full picture of the waste you are creating or have created, you need to have testing, site-walks and other types of due diligence conducted. The more you know about the kind of waste you are creating, and how much, the better suited you will be to build out your customized plan.

Whether you are an established company wanting to improve or create your plan, or a company looking for a new workplace or site, doing due diligence is a must. If you want to learn more about this environmental due diligence, and the assessments involved, you can do so in this Phase I Environmental Site Assessment article.

Find Ways to Reduce and Reuse

While responsibly disposing of things is often at the heart of any waste management plan, it should be about so much more than that. In fact, actually throwing things away at a dump or landfill should be kept to a minimum. Instead, your plan should be focused primarily on reducing your waste and reusing what you can.

This could be by changing up certain processes, using new technology, or simply identifying what methods produce the most waste, and optimizing them. Also seek to reuse the waste that you can. If you yourself can’t use it, see if another company or industry might be able to.

For example, instead of tossing food waste in the garbage, it can often be used as compost by large farms. While not all types of waste can be reduced or reused, you would be shocked at what can be done if you take your time and come up with a plan.

Know the Responsibilities and Guidelines in Your Area

In most areas, businesses have certain responsibilities when it comes to waste management. It could be anything from offering the right receptacles to staying below a certain threshold of waste. You need to be aware of your responsibilities wherever you operate. If you don’t comply and do what you are responsible for doing, you could end up with some serious penalties or fines to deal with.

In addition to knowing the responsibilities you have in your local area, also be aware of the guidelines. Some cities or areas will require the waste to be sorted or disposed of in a certain way. Be sure to have all of these policies and rules clearly stated for everyone, so they aren’t left confused about anything.

On a similar note, be aware of the local services that can assist with waste management. Know where they operate, what sorts of materials they can help you dispose of and what the associated costs are.

In conclusion, we hope the information and tips in this article have helped you create a better waste management plan.

The Guide To Mid Century Modern Sofas

Mid-century modern furniture is characterized by a chic, retro look. These types of furniture pieces often have very clean lines, and come in a wide variety of colors. For this type of design, the sofas are often made of soft materials such as velvet or tweed.

Once you have decided that you want to go with a mid-century modern design for your place, you will need to select furniture pieces that align with the theme. When it comes to mid century sofas, you must make your choice carefully since you are likely to remain with them for a long time. Below we have, therefore, outlined a few tips to pay attention to while making your selection:

mid century sofa buying guide

1. Comfort

In this digital age, there has been a shift towards e-commerce shopping for many items in our homes. It is a fast, easy and convenient method which saves us a lot of time and energy. And while this method is advantageous, it may not be the best approach to take while purchasing items such as furniture.

Just like when buying a mattress, you need to try it out and see if it is the type of sofa you would like. Pay attention to factors such as the length and the height of the couch for optimum back support.

2. Color

One of the defining characteristics of a mid-century modern sofa would be the incorporation of bold colors such as gold, or a contrasting color palette.

Black and white especially are great to complement a minimalist home, to give it an edgy, elegant vibe. Softer colors such as teal or peach are also excellent to create a brighter look in your home. Go for whatever color seems best, and for that which goes along with the tones in your house.

3. Size

A mid-century modern sofa can come in different types, such as sectionals, loveseats, or couches. Whichever type you wish to have, you must consider the size to ensure that it fits well within your space.

One of the handy tricks that you would do beforehand is to measure out the open space that you have and take the measurements with you when you go shopping. This will allow you to select furniture that will fit nicely in your room, and not give you any headaches.

4. Price

Pricing is always an important factor to consider when making a purchase. Nobody wants to splurge and end up in debt or without the necessary money to pay their bills.

To get a nice couch that will not leave a massive dent in your pocket, you must do adequate research and compare prices before making the purchase. This will help you pick the best couch that suits you at the most convenient price.

5. Durability

For a couch to last long, it must be made of durable materials. As such, it is best to go for a sturdy wood frame as it will provide the most support for a long time. Particleboard or plywood may however not be the best case for couches, but they are good for kitchen boards.

9 Things You Need to Know Before Starting College

As you are planning to get enrolled in college, you are not just choosing the movie club to visit or think about what book to read. It is the choice of life that can change your future forever. Nevertheless, making your first choice is also not the end of the world because you have to explore and see what would be the most efficient solution for you. Therefore, you should learn various tips and recommendations before you take the first step towards your academic career.

things to consider before starting college

Things You Must Learn Before Starting College

1. Take Time to Study Available Options

Never ever hurry when you are looking for college. Think about what you would like to learn. Create various personal statement letters. Read them aloud, give it time to see if it sounds good to you. You can also request professional assistance by checking the best essay writing service reviews to see who can guide you as you look through the list of colleges. Just give it time and see what works for you!

2. Consider Community Colleges

If you want to save some funds and get the basics of college life to make a good transition, consider certain community colleges. It will help you to see how it feels to learn on campus.

3. Take a College Year Gap

It is not obligatory to join the college as you graduate from your high school. Sometimes it is good to get older and have some rest to see things differently. You just want to have some fun and do those things that you always wanted to do. When you take some rest by taking a year gap, you will always feel much better! Just think about it!

4. Take Various Tests

You can consider taking a CLEP exam to graduate sooner by skipping through the general subjects like Maths, Chemistry, and English. It will also help you in terms of funds and boarding!

5. Consider Community Work First

You can also consider working as a volunteer and add something valuable to your resume before you join college. Consider checking GrabMyEssay.com reviews and see how to compose your resume and write essays to apply for a scholarship. If you have some community merits, you will have better chances of joining a prestigious college!

6. Think About Online Courses

Before you join the college in 2021 and become a victim of a student loan, consider taking a look at various remote learning courses. Of course, there are pros and cons of online education, which means that you should explore if it works best for you!

online-learning

7. Visit Colleges in Person

Just take time to walk around the campus and explore things on your own. It will help you to see the major and minor differences. Talk to people and learn things.

8. Foreign Exchange Students

If you are up for some challenges, you should consider joining a foreign exchange program. It will make it possible to learn and travel at the same time. For example, if you want to learn specific subjects that may not be available in your country, joining one of the foreign programs is the way to go!

9. Read Online Reviews

Do not forget to read testimonials from those who have already joined relevant colleges. It will help you to estimate your opinion and see what pros and cons you have.

Do Not Abandon Your Hobbies

We all know how people who used to do sports often gave up on playing basketball or baseball. Likewise, students who used to play guitar or piano would focus on their studies all the time and ignore their hobbies.

importance of hobbies for college students

The most important is to learn about your college campus facilities to see what sport, arts, or music clubs you can join. Even if you do not have something that interests you, it is always possible to participate in community and charity work to keep inspired and show your soft skills!

Waste-to-Energy in Saudi Arabia

Urban waste management has emerged as a big challenge for the government and local bodies in Saudi Arabia. The country generates more than 15 million tons of municipal solid waste each year with per capita waste production estimated to be 2 kg per day, among the highest worldwide. Municipal waste production in three largest cities – Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam – exceeds 6 million tons per annum which gives an indication of the enormity of the problem faced by civic bodies.

waste-jeddah

The Problem of Waste

Municipal waste generation in Saudi Arabia is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Due to high population growth rate, rapid urbanization and fast-paced economic development, MSW generation is expected to cross 30 million tons per year by 2033. More than 75 percent of Kingdom’s population is concentrated in urban areas, and collected garbage is thrown in landfills or dumpsites without any processing or treatment.

Most of the landfills in Saudi Arabia are non-sanitary and prone to problems like leachate, vermin, flies and spontaneous fires, apart from greenhouse gas emissions.  It has become necessary for the Saudi government to devise an integrated waste management strategy, using international best practices and modern technologies, to tackle heaps of garbage accumulating across the country.

Promise of Waste-to-Energy

Waste-to-energy provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution to both energy demand and MSW disposal problems in Saudi Arabia. Increasing waste generation, inability of existing solutions to tackle waste and expansion of cities into ex-dump sites are strong drivers for large-scale deployment of WTE systems in the Kingdom.

Saudi Arabia has tremendous waste-to-energy potential due to plentiful availability of good quality municipal waste. Modern waste-to-energy technologies, such as RDF-based incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion have the ability to transform power demand and waste management scenario in the country.

A typical 250 – 300 tons per day garbage-to-energy plant can produce around 3 – 4 MW of electricity and a network of such plants in cities around the country can make a real difference in waste management as well as energy sectors.  In fact, such plants also produce tremendous about of heat energy which can be utilized in process industries and district cooling systems, further maximizing their usefulness.

Key Challenges

Around the world, waste-to-energy finds wide acceptance as a tool to manage urban wastes, with more than 1,000 waste-to-energy plants in operation globally, especially in Europe, China and the Asia-Pacific. However, waste-to-energy is struggling to get off-the-ground in Saudi Arabia due to several issues, the main reason being the cheap and plentiful availability of oil which prevents decision-makers to set effective regulations for waste-to-energy development in the country.

Waste-to-Energy is widely accepted as a part of sustainable waste management strategy worldwide.

Waste-to-Energy is widely accepted as a part of sustainable waste management strategy worldwide.

Policy-makers in KSA should consider waste-to-energy as a sustainable waste management solution, rather than as a power-producing industry. Unlike Western countries, waste management services are practically free-of-cost for the waste generators which act as a deterrent for governmental investment in new waste management solutions and technologies, such as waste-to-energy. Infact, waste collection, transport and disposal methods in Saudi Arabia do not match the standards of a developed country.

Future Outlook

Vision 2030, touted as most comprehensive economic reform package in Saudi history, puts forward a strong regulatory and investment framework to develop Saudi waste-to-energy sector. An ambitious target of 3GW of energy from waste is to be achieved by 2025.  A methodical introduction of modern waste management techniques like material recovery facilities, waste-to-energy systems and recycling infrastructure can significantly improve waste management scenario and can also generate good business opportunities.

To sum up, environmental issues associated with non-sanitary landfills, ineffectiveness of prevalent waste management model and rising energy demand are key drivers for development of waste-to-energy sector in Saudi Arabia.