How Can You Produce Your Own Biogas?

The idea of biogas is anything but new. People have been experimenting with making biogas for many generations. Biogas is made by converting organic waste into energy. It’s a huge win for the environment because it utilizes what is otherwise considered waste, but it’s a big win for pocketbooks too.

Organic waste includes the byproducts of human food production (think potato peels, carrot peels, the tops of turnips, etc) but it also includes manure. Any manure is fair game, think about cows, pigs, chickens, rabbits, goats — virtually any farm animal produces mounds of this each day.

This manure produces very high levels of methane gas which is horrible for the environment. By using this manure to create biogas, we remove the danger of creating heat-trapping gases in our atmosphere that raises the temperature of the entire planet. Using it for biogas production can also help to reduce global warming.

How Do We Produce Biogas?

Biogas is produced from the breakdown of organic waste in an environment that is void of oxygen. We call this environment anaerobic and the process is process is called anaerobic digestion. Two products are created from this process. One is digestate. Digestate can be used for fertilizer and even as livestock bedding.  The other product is biogas. Biogas can be used for heating, electricity production and as a clean vehicle fuel.

It’s essentially like composting all of the materials, but in an environment without oxygen and in the temperature range of around 35 to 40 degrees Celsius and pH of around 7. This is optimal to produce biogas. Biogas can be converted into an upgraded form of gas by removal of carbon dioxide that can be used like natural gas. It can be used as-is as an engine fuel. It can be used as fuel in a vehicle, sometimes without modification.

How Can You Produce Your Own Biogas?

Just imagine being on your own off-grid property, running a hundred head of cattle, growing your own food and canning it. You’ve got meat covered, your food is stocked and you are prepared for just about anything. But what about fuel? Imagine what a game-changer it could be if you were able to produce your own fuel from the waste from your cattle and your garden scraps or food residuals! You can!

The Biogas Digester makes it possible, and fairly easy, for you to start producing your own biogas. Buy a ready-made biodigester for around $700-$1000 dollars and start producing your own biogas to meet your fuel requirements. They are containers designed to do the work for you and help you collect the fruits of your composted and digested waste.

Build your own! China has approximately 30 million Biodigesters in use in its rural areas. Rural Chinese areas are far removed from cities that have gas stations. It simply isn’t accessible as it is in the US. Many rural people have learned to make their own biodigesters to fill their fuel needs.

offgrid-biodigester

You need a tank that is sealed with an access hole on one side for adding organic waste. You have another access to an outlet. That is where you collect the liquid run-off that can be used for fuel.

The bottom of the main unit is the digestion chamber. From that is an outlet where the digestate can be collected and used as fertilizer. The main chamber typically has a domed top to allow for the room that will be necessary for the expansion of the gases formed inside. By being sealed, the unit creates that all-important anaerobic environment.

Useful Links

A tank that demonstrates the size and simplicity of a tank that can be purchased and used in the backyard.

https://www.etsy.com/listing/705458580/portable-home-biogas?gpla=1&gao=1&

This is a very in-depth article with directions for creating your own biodigester from Science Direct – https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/biogas-digester

Biogas from Crop Wastes vs Energy Crops: European Perspectives

Most, if not all of Europe has a suitable climate for biogas production. The specific type of system depends on the regional climate. Regions with harsher winters may rely more on animal waste and other readily available materials compared to warmer climates, which may have access to more crop waste or organic material.

biogas-crop

Regardless of suitability, European opinions vary on the most ethical and appropriate materials to use for biogas production. Multiple proponents argue biogas production should be limited to waste materials derived from crops and animals, while others claim crops should be grown with the intention of being used for biogas production.

Biogas Production From Crops

Europeans in favor of biogas production from energy crops argue the crops improve the quality of the soil. Additionally, they point to the fact that biogas is a renewable energy resource compared to fossil fuels. Crops can be rotated in fields and grown year after year as a sustainable source of fuel.

Extra crops can also improve air quality. Plants respire carbon dioxide and can help reduce harmful greenhouse gasses in the air which contribute to global climate change.

Energy crops can also improve water quality because of plant absorption. Crops grown in otherwise open fields reduce the volume of water runoff which makes it to lakes, streams and rivers. The flow of water and harmful pollutants is impeded by the plants and eventually absorbed into the soil, where it is purified.

Urban residents can also contribute to biogas production by growing rooftop or vertical gardens in their homes. Waste from tomatoes, beans and other vegetables is an excellent source of biogas material. Residents will benefit from improved air quality and improved water quality as well by reducing runoff.

Proponents of biogas production from crops aren’t against using organic waste material for biogas production in addition to crop material. They believe crops offer another means of using more sustainable energy resources.

Biogas Production From Agricultural Waste

Opponents to growing crops for biogas argue the crops used for biogas production degrade soil quality, making it less efficient for growing crops for human consumption. They also argue the overall emissions from biogas production from crops will be higher compared to fossil fuels.

Growing crops can be a labor-intensive process. Land must be cleared, fertilized and then seeded. While crops are growing, pesticides and additional fertilizers may be used to promote crop growth and decrease losses from pests. Excess chemicals can run off of fields and degrade the water quality of streams, lakes and rivers and kill off marine life.

Once crops reach maturity, they must be harvested and processed to be used for biogas material. Biogas is less efficient compared to fossil fuels, which means it requires more material to yield the same amount of energy. Opponents argue that when the entire supply chain is evaluated, biogas from crops creates higher rates of emissions and is more harmful to the environment.

Agricultural residues, such as rice straw, are an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion

In Europe, the supply chain for biogas from agricultural waste is more efficient compared to crop materials. Regardless of whether or not the organic waste is reused, it must be disposed of appropriately to prevent any detrimental environmental impacts. When crop residues are used for biogas production, it creates an economical means of generating useful electricity from material which would otherwise be disposed of.

Rural farms which are further away from the electric grid can create their own sources of energy through biogas production from agriculture wastes as well. The cost of the energy will be less expensive and more eco-friendly as it doesn’t have the associated transportation costs.

Although perspectives differ on the type of materials which should be used for biogas production, both sides agree biogas offers an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to using fossil fuels.

Biomethane – The Green Gas

Biomethane, also known as the green gas, is a well-known and well-proven source of clean energy, and is witnessing increasing demand worldwide, especially in European countries, as it is one of the most cost-effective and eco-friendly replacement for natural gas and diesel.

Advantages of Biomethane

The key advantage of biomethane is that it is less corrosive than biogas which makes it more flexible in its application than raw biogas. It can be injected directly into the existing natural gas grid leading to energy-efficient and cost-effective transport, besides allowing natural gas grid operators to persuade consumers to make a smooth transition to a renewable source of natural gas.

Biogas can be upgraded to biomethane and injected into the natural gas grid to substitute natural gas or can be compressed and fuelled via a pumping station at the place of production. Biomethane can be injected and distributed through the natural gas grid, after it has been compressed to the pipeline pressure.

The injected biomethane can be used at any ratio with natural gas as vehicle fuel. In many EU countries, the access to the gas grid is guaranteed for all biogas suppliers.

A major advantage of using natural gas grid for biomethane distribution is that the grid connects the production site of biomethane, which is usually in rural areas, with more densely populated areas. This enables biogas to reach new customers.

Storage of Biomethane

Biomethane can be converted either into liquefied biomethane (LBM) or compressed biomethane (CBM) in order to facilitate its long-term storage and transportation. LBM can be transported relatively easily and can be dispensed through LNG vehicles or CNG vehicles. Liquid biomethane is transported in the same manner as LNG, that is, via insulated tanker trucks designed for transportation of cryogenic liquids.

Biomethane can be stored as CBM to save space. The gas is stored in steel cylinders such as those typically used for storage of other commercial gases.

Applications of Biomethane

Biomethane can be used to generate electricity and heating from within smaller decentralized, or large centrally-located combined heat and power plants. It can be used by heating systems with a highly efficient fuel value, and employed as a regenerative power source in gas-powered vehicles.

Biomethane, as a transportation fuel, is most suitable for vehicles having engines that are based on natural gas (CNG or LNG). Once biogas is cleaned and upgraded to biomethane, it is virtually the same as natural gas.

Because biomethane has a lower energy density than NG, due to the high CO2 content, in some circumstances, changes to natural gas-based vehicle’s fuel injection system are required to use the biomethane effectively.