The Role Gas Turbines Play in Power Plant Reliability

Gas turbines play a huge role in power plant reliability. In most cases—whether it be simple-cycle or combined-cycle applications for gas turbines—the gas turbine is the first major piece of equipment in the process that needs to start. So, without a reliable control system or a well-maintained and cared-for control system, your primary piece of major equipment is out of the game or unavailable.

GE_H_series_Gas_Turbine

In this article, we will explain the role of gas turbines a little more, and why they so important for the reliability of your power plant.

Start Permissives: Ready to Start or Not?

Typically, when most frames 7FA, 6FA, 5A, or any industrial frame size gas turbine owner starts the plant with the gas turbine control system, there is typically a page with start permissives, indicating the system is ready to start or not ready to start. Start permissives are conditions on the unit that need to be met before it can start.

In many cases, the rest of the equipment at the plant depends on the gas turbine control system because it is often the first thing that plant managers will start before the other equipment. 

Therefore, if you receive the “not ready to start” indication, then you won’t be able to start your gas turbine—or the rest of your plant at all, especially if there are other drivers behind the gas turbine. 

How the Control System Works

A control system is made up of a bunch of subsystems, pretty much like everything in a power plant. So, the control system as a whole has subsystems under it, and that can kind of be broken down and analyzed in an engineering mind state. 

The primary parts of the control system are the software and logic, which are really reliable. They don’t typically break; they are just computer code that is programmed.

Typically when we see problems, malfunctions, abnormalities in logic or software, it’s because of some type of human interaction. Most control systems or any other equipment for that matter don’t fail on their own. Of course, failures without human interaction can happen, but they are rare.  

The relays in the system that bring the logic from the software are typically control cards and other communication devices. These devices can fail. In these cases, when the devices can fail, the logic and software fails as well.

Why Reliability is So Important

If you don’t have a reliable gas turbine control system, then you usually can’t even get the plane off the ground, so to speak. You can’t even really gain any momentum!

Therefore, it is important to perform check out and regular inspections of your control system equipment. At TC&E we like to call these inspections “reliability assessments”. To put it simply, it involves a clean and inspect of the system. 

At TC&E, our team checks the control system, cleans it out, performs some file management, and ensures that there aren’t any warning lights and that everything looks healthy and functional.

Contact our team today to learn more about our reliability assessments and what we can do to help ensure your plant’s reliability. 

Newly-Launched Inventions That Can Help Homeowners Save Energy

Domestic energy efficiency has advanced a long way over the last few decades. Despite our overall energy consumption increasing by just over a third since 1980, on average our homes consume around 10% less overall. How can this be the case when we have so many more electrical appliances? Back in 1980, not many homes had more than a single TV, and computers and mobile phones were essentially non-existent. Yet somehow they used more electricity!

The answer to this question comes down to one simple principle. Energy efficiency. Government regulations and technical advances led by the private sector have resulted in appliances that are simply more sustainable. Throw in a better public understanding of the importance of reducing carbon emissions, and also the use of money expert comparison sites to track the expense of powering a home, and it the picture becomes a little clearer.

Expect to see this trend become ever more prevalent in the near future, as sustainability has become a huge industry sector that continues to rapidly expand.

Here’s a selection of the most recent technologies that are already helping homeowners save money that we can expect to become common place over the coming years.

1. Smart Homes

At first glance, you may wonder what the point is in buying a new domestic appliance that is advertised as ‘internet connected/ready’. After all, who is going to need a web compatible refrigerator or air conditioning unit? It is increasingly common for newly released appliances to boast this feature because in the coming years, our homes are going to be much more connected than at present. Being able to monitor and control energy expenditure remotely via smartphone is a tech that is already with us – but these are still the early days.

The next big step forward is going to be the implementation of wireless sensors throughout the home. These will connect all the appliances in the home to a centralized control panel which will automatically instruct how they interact with the energy supply.

For instance, appliances not in use, but on ‘standby’ mode will be entirely disconnected from the power supply when nobody is at home. Heating and air conditioning use will be precisely measured according to the ambient temperature. Just these two examples – and there are many more in the pipeline – are set to shave a considerable amount of household energy consumption in the very near future.

2. Next Generation Home Insulation

The US Industrial Science & Technology Network takes the approach that heating and cooling costs can best be reduced by simply developing superior insulation. While still at the development stage, these are promised to be far more efficient at preventing heat from escaping.

As may be expected, they are also going to be environmentally sound and most likely comprised of recycled foam materials. Should these be proven to work, there is a very good chance they will become the industry norm for new build and redeveloped housing in the years to come.

3. Reflective Roofing Materials

While insulation is ideal for maintaining an ambient temperature what about those who live in warmer climes? Everyone knows how expensive it is to run air conditioning 24 hours a day, but there have been considerable recent advances in reflective rooftop materials. Currently, these work by using special pigments that are coated onto the roof in order to reflect sunlight and heat.

The next generation in development will use fluorescent pigments that look likely to be up to four times more efficient. So for those who reside in areas where effective air conditioning is essential around the year, these new materials may well be an absolute godsend.

4. Magnetocaloric Refrigerators

A fridge powered by magnets? Close, but not quite. Refrigeration technology has barely changed or advanced since they were first introduced. Modern fridges still rely on vapor compression, which unfortunately requires chemical coolants that are notoriously bad for the environment.

Next generation models are going to be able to make use of water-based coolants that make use of the magnetocaloric effect. In layperson’s terms, this is the use of magnets to alter the magnetic field which can provide an extremely energy efficient cooling effect. Expect this to become commonplace in the coming years, thanks to their potential in enormously reducing energy expenditure and carbon emissions.

5. Much More Efficient Heat Pumps

Considerable progress has been made by the US Building Technologies Office in developing heat pumps that essentially move heat throughout the home. There are three models in design that promise to considerably reduce expenditure on heating while also significantly reduce carbon emissions. Standard gas boilers/furnaces are notoriously expensive and inefficient.

  • A low-cost gas-based heating pump could massively increase efficiency and result in lowering heating costs by a staggering 45%.
  • Multiple function fuel based pumps designed for domestic use can still save an estimated 30% with the added bonus of also providing more efficient water heating.
  • Natural gas based heating pumps connected with air conditioners aim to use a very low emission boiler to cater for all domestic needs regardless of the season. Of all three options, this is the most complete package and the one most likely to become widespread in the coming years.

These styles of heat pumps are also going to be used to significantly reduce the energy used by clothes drying machines. General Electric has been already near completing their first gas pump compatible dryer. This is intended to reduce the energy consumption of perhaps the least efficient appliance in the home by up to 60%.

6. Even Better LED Lighting

Energy saving lighting may have become the accepted norm in many households, and the good news is that it is set to become even better. At present these are up to 85% more efficient than old fashioned incandescent bulbs, but the next generation – scheduled for a few years time – promise to double their efficiency. An improvement up to 230 lumens (from the current 115) is forecast.

8% of all electricity consumption in the USA are due to lighting homes and businesses. Having that figure will make for a huge national saving and reduction of energy costs across the board. (Source:https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=99&t=3)

7. Advanced Window Insulation

While still in development this may not sound like a huge advance, but could well result in enormous net energy savings down the line. Using microprocessors and sensors to measure sunlight and radiant heat, these are going to automatically provide shading to assist with providing ideal natural lighting and also assist with heating. Expect these to be integrated with the general smart home system outlined above in due course.

Final Thoughts

So there we have seven of the most exciting and interesting developments that we can expect to see in the home over the coming years. While some are already in production while others are just passing the prototype phase, the future is looking positive in terms of reducing emissions and better managing energy consumption. Energy efficiency is here to stay and these developments will likely only be the tip of the iceberg compared to what we can look forward to over coming decades.

The Impact of Smart Homes on Generations

America is already feeling the impact of smart homes. A large industry based on this technology is forming. But, what is the effect of it on the different generations? Here you can find a brief discussion of the impact of smart homes on generations.

What is a Smart Home?

Smart homes consist of all the different smart products owned by the user. These products are interconnected. It makes use of the internet to connect to other products. This technical feature is called the Internet of Things (IoT).

There are all kinds of products. Every room or space in a home can be automated by smart home products. You can even install smart devices into your backyard like smart lawnmowers and irrigation systems.

Benefits for all generations

Smart home products are designed to benefit its users. The technology is developed for all generations. So there are benefits to its use that applies to everyone.

These benefits include:

  • An increase in comfort of the user’s lifestyle.
  • Increased life expectancy caused by the usage of these products (i.e. smart security products).

Impacts on different generations

Three larger generation groups have been defined for the purpose of this discussion. It’s been split into the retirees, the working force, and the youth.

Retirees

Smart home products can connect to all kinds of services and devices. Elderly people can enjoy minor medical check-ups from the comfort of their homes. Video calls and domestic smart medical equipment can supply all the information a doctor needs. Doctors can keep an eye on patients that are too far from their offices.

Retired people can make use of smart home technology to automate simple tasks. Grocery shopping and other basic services are accessible through these products. Retirees will enjoy the improved elderly care and greater access to basic services caused by smart homes.

The working force

Smart home products like smart thermostats have been known to save its users an average of 20% in yearly warming and cooling costs. According to a study conducted by SafeAtLast, 57% of American smart home owners save about 30 minutes per day. Automating your home will save you lots of time and effort in the process.

The working force who owns smart home products will be more productive. They will also have more cash on hand due to extra savings. Smart homes can help to create a wealthier economy by assisting the working force.

The youth

The youth of today is the promise for tomorrow. Smart home technology is indirectly designed to increase the life expectancy of its user. All these benefits will help to cultivate a better tomorrow. The youth who grow up with smart home technology will have an advantage over their lesser privileged youths. Though, the psychological effects of this technology (over the long term) is yet to be studied.

Conclusion

This technology wants to make your life better. It will benefit every generation. Give it a try to experience the benefits yourself. Read on to for interesting facts on smart homes.

Zena Fly- Feeding the World on Insect

Meeting an ever increasing demand for food/feed/energy and managing waste have become two of the major global challenges. The global world population is estimated to increase from 7.3 billion in 2015 to 9.7 billion in 2050. Approximately one third of the global food produced for human composition is wasted. Currently, approximately 1.3 billion metric tons of waste are disposed with significant environmental impact as far as greenhouse gases and economic footprints and the current waste management practices are not costly sustainable.

Increase in Global Energy Demand

Global energy demand is estimated to increase from 524 Quadrillion btu in 2010, to 820 Quadrillion btu by 2040 (a 56% increase). Similarly, global demand of food and animal products are projected to increase by 70-100% and 50-70%, respectively, by 2050. To cope up with the demand for animal products, a substantial increase in nutritious animal feed is needed.

On one hand, the production of conventional feedstuff such as soybean meal and fish meal is reported as the major contributor to land occupation, ocean depletion, climate change, water and energy consumption. Moreover, such conventional animal feedstuff are not only limited in supply but also are becoming more expensive over the years. Additionally, there is an already strong and increasing competition for resources such as food, feed and biofuel production.

Need for alternative non-conventional source of food, feed, and fuel

Thus there is a pressing need for identifying and exploring the potential of alternative non-conventional source of food, feed, and fuel, which are economically viable, environmentally friendly, and socially acceptable.

By 2030 the Bio-based Economy is expected to have grown significantly. A pillar of this is biorefining, the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. To satisfy this demand biorefineries need to be better integrated, flexible and operating more substantially. This means that a major yield, more efficient use of nutrients and water and greater pest and disease resistance should be achieve.

Zena Fly: A Startup Worth Watching

In this context an Italian-based start-up, Zena Fly, designed an innovative process for the future integrated bio-refinery by mimicking nature’s ability. In fact, Zena Fly utilizes the natural insect life cycle to manage large quantity of organic waste produced in urban and industrial context, in order to generate sustainable and valuable by-products. The project of three young entrepreneurs foresees a combined bio-refinery where waste is turned into high-quality by-products by the anaerobic insect digestion.

The Concept

The basic concept is to convert waste into high-valuable products utilizing the black soldier flies (H. illucens), a now globally distributed insect. With a modern technique, the typical insect life cycle of these insects can be utilized in order to manage urban and industrial waste. The voracious larvae can reduce by more than 40-70% (based on the nature of the substrate-waste) the substrate where reared (waste) within 12-14 days.

From the anaerobic waste digestion, large quantity of fine protein meal for feed composition (more than 50-60% in protein), fat, fertilizing oil and other by-products of great interest such as chitin, and high-quality biofuel are then extracted.

Since the adult fly do not feed, and do not fly around for feeding, these animals are exceptionally valuable from a sanitary perspective (larvae has been demonstrate to reduce/eliminate E.coli and Salmonella).

Business Model

Zena Fly business model foresees to replicate their integrated biorefineries next to any waste management companies or industrial production areas where large quantity of waste need to be reduced and transformed. This is a win/win operation, where the waste management cost would be cut in half and the process will generate appealing opportunities for investments in a market where the increasing demand is already way higher than the products availability.

Zena Fly is now seeking for the right partner-investor in order to scale up quickly. For more information, please visit www.zena-fly.com or email us on info@zena-fly.com

The Issues and Impact of Energy Storage Technology

Renewable energy has taken off. Wind and solar in particular had grown rapidly, since they can be installed on a small scale and connected to the grid. This has created a number of problems for utility companies while failing to deliver the promised benefits because energy storage technology has not caught up. Let’s look at some of the issues with renewable energy before explaining how advances in energy storage technology will ease these concerns.

The Instability of the Power Grid

The rapid growth of renewable power has added to the instability of the power grid. First, the introduction of many variable power sources forces utilities to deal with varying power supply relative to demand. Second, the relative lack of energy storage systems means there is far more wasted energy than before. When there is a spike in solar or wind power, they can’t store most of it for future usage. This adds to the instability and risk of failure of local portions of the power grid.

If we had more widespread, efficient energy storage, energy producers could save power above the expected power created locally instead of leaving power companies to turn on and off natural gas turbines to meet variation in demand. It would also eliminate the need to build natural gas turbines as backup power sources for when new renewable power sources aren’t meeting expectations.

The Lack of Backup Power

Solar power has long been a source of power for off-the-grid properties. However, this is dependent on having energy storage on site, typically batteries. Yet many solar roofs were set up to minimize cause and maximize tax credits to the detriment of home owners. We can look at the multiple disasters that hit California along with their wildfires. Utility companies couldn’t raise rates to pay for more fire-resistant infrastructure. They could be sued for any new wildfires blamed on the power equipment. The utility company’s only solution as to turn off power to areas that were burning or at risk of catching fire, if they didn’t want to be shut down entirely.

California has one of the highest rates of solar roof installations in the world. Unfortunately, most of those solar roofs were connected directly to the power grid, and the home owner receives power from the grid. This minimized how much equipment had to be installed while giving them the ability to sell power to the grid and get power from the grid. The problem is that they couldn’t get power from the grid when the power grid was shut down unless they paid several thousand dollars extra for renewable energy storage; note that less than two percent of customers did this. That hurt the broader power grid, as well, since solar roofs couldn’t deliver power to the power grid when the power grid was shut down.

The greatest irony was suffered by electric car owners. Imagine being told that you need to flee the wildfires, and all you have is an electric car that you can’t charge. A few homeowners made matters worse by tapping into their Tesla car battery to try to power their homes for a while, draining it dry.

Yet those few people with battery storage systems were fine. Their homes were wired in such a way that they could pull from the battery power when the power grid was down, assuming they were ever connected to the grid. They could continue to run their air conditioners and other appliances though no one else had power. For those that had solar roofs connected to the grid and energy storage systems, the grid being down means all of their power went into the battery. That energy wasn’t wasted, and the family could use it.

Methods for Hydrogen Sulphide Removal from Biogas

The major contaminant in biogas is H2S which is both poisonous and corrosive, and causes significant damage to piping, equipment and instrumentation. The concentration of various components of biogas has an impact on its ultimate end use. While boilers can withstand concentrations of H2S up to 1000 ppm, and relatively low pressures, internal combustion engines operate best when H2S is maintained below 100 ppm. The commonly used methods for hydrogen sulphide removal from biogas are internal to the anaerobic digestion process – air/oxygen dosing to digester biogas and iron chloride dosing to digester slurry.

Biological Desulphurization

Biological desulphurization of biogas can be performed by using micro-organisms. Most of the sulphide oxidising micro-organisms belong to the family of Thiobacillus. For the microbiological oxidation of sulphide it is essential to add stoichiometric amounts of oxygen to the biogas. Depending on the concentration of hydrogen sulphide this corresponds to 2 to 6 % air in biogas.

The simplest method of desulphurization is the addition of oxygen or air directly into the digester or in a storage tank serving at the same time as gas holder. Thiobacilli are ubiquitous and thus systems do not require inoculation. They grow on the surface of the digestate, which offers the necessary micro-aerophilic surface and at the same time the necessary nutrients. They form yellow clusters of sulphur. Depending on the temperature, the reaction time, the amount and place of the air added the hydrogen sulphide concentration can be reduced by 95 % to less than 50 ppm.

Measures of safety have to be taken to avoid overdosing of air in case of pump failures. Biogas in air is explosive in the range of 6 to 12 %, depending on the methane content). In steel digesters without rust protection there is a small risk of corrosion at the gas/liquid interface.

Iron Chloride Dosing

Iron chloride can be fed directly to the digester slurry or to the feed substrate in a pre-storage tank. Iron chloride then reacts with produced hydrogen sulphide and form iron sulphide salt (particles). This method is extremely effective in reducing high hydrogen sulphide levels but less effective in attaining a low and stable level of hydrogen sulphide in the range of vehicle fuel demands.

In this respect the method with iron chloride dosing to digester slurry can only be regarded as a partial removal process in order to avoid corrosion in the rest of the upgrading process equipment. The method need to be complemented with a final removal down to about 10 ppm.

The investment cost for such a removal process is limited since the only investment needed is a storage tank for iron chloride solution and a dosing pump. On the other hand the operational cost will be high due to the prime cost for iron chloride.

Guide to Effective Waste Management

The best way of dealing with waste, both economically and environmentally, is to avoid creating it in the first place. For effective waste management, waste minimization, reuse, recycle and energy recovery are more sustainable than conventional landfill or dumpsite disposal technique.

Olusosun is the largest dumpsite in Nigeria

Waste Minimization

Waste minimization is the process of reducing the amount of waste produced by a person or a society. Waste minimization is about the way in which the products and services we all rely on are designed, made, bought and sold, used, consumed and disposed of.

Waste Reuse

Reuse means using an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function and new-life reuse where it is used for a new function. For example, concrete is a type of construction waste which can be recycled and used as a base for roads; inert material may be used as a layer that covers the dumped waste on landfill at the end of the day.

Waste Recycling

Recycling of waste involves reprocessing the particular waste materials, including e-waste, so that it can be used as raw materials in another process. This is also known as material recovery. A well-known process for recycling waste is composting, where biodegradable wastes are biologically decomposed leading to the formation of nutrient-rich compost.

Waste-to-Energy

As far as waste-to-energy is concerned, major processes involved are mass-burn incineration, RDF incineration, anaerobic digestion, gasification and pyrolysis. Gasification and pyrolysis involves super-heating of municipal solid waste in an oxygen-controlled environment to avoid combustion. The primary differences among them relate to heat source, oxygen level, and temperature, from as low as about 300°C for pyrolysis to as high as 11 000°C for plasma gasification. The residual gases like carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane etc are released after a sophisticated gas cleaning mechanism.

MSW incineration produce significant amounts of a waste called bottom ash, of which about 40% must be landfilled. The remaining 60% can be further treated to separate metals, which are sold, from inert materials, which are often used as road base.

The above mentioned techniques are trending in many countries and region. As of 2014, Tokyo (Japan) has nineteen advanced and sophisticated waste incinerator plants making it one of the cleanest cities. From the legislature standpoint, the country has implemented strict emission parameters in incinerator plants and waste transportation.

The European Union also has a similar legislature framework as they too faced similar challenges with regards to waste management. Some of these policies include – maximizing recycling and re-use, reducing landfill, ensuring the guidelines are followed by the member states.

Singapore has also turned to converting household waste into clean fuel, which both reduced the volume going into landfills and produced electricity. Now its four waste-to-energy plants account for almost 3% of the country’s electricity needs, and recycling rates are at an all-time high of 60%. By comparison, the U.S. sent 53% of its solid waste to landfills in 2013, recycled only 34% of waste and converted 13% into electricity, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Trends in Waste Collection

Since the municipal solid waste can be a mixture of all possible wastes and not just ones belonging to the same category and recommended process, recent advances in physical processes, sensors, and actuators used as well as control and autonomy related issues in the area of automated sorting and recycling of source-separated municipal solid waste.

Automated vacuum waste collection systems that are located underground are also actively used in various parts of the world like Abu Dhabi, Barcelona, Leon, Mecca and New York etc. The utilization of the subsurface space can provide the setting for the development of infrastructure which is capable of addressing in a more efficient manner the limitations of existing waste management schemes.

AI-based waste management systems can help in route optimization and waste disposal

This technique also minimizes operational costs, noise and provides more flexibility. There are various new innovations like IoT-enabled garbage cans, electric garbage trucks, waste sorting robots, eco dumpster and mechanisms etc are also being developed and deployed at various sites.

Conclusion

Waste management is a huge and ever growing industry that has to be analyzed and updated at every point based on the new emergence of threats and technology. With government educating the normal people and creating awareness among different sector of the society, setting sufficient budgets and assisting companies and facilities for planning, research and waste management processes can help to relax the issues to an extent if not eradicating it completely. These actions not only help in protecting environment, but also help in employment generation and boosting up the economy.

How Modern Technology is Transforming Urban Development

Australia is famous the whole world over for its incredible scenery and stunning countryside, from the arid yet beautiful outback to the shimmering sands of the Gold Coast, but the country is also home to some of the world’s favourite cities. Australia’s population is growing, and so urban development and planning is becoming ever more important. The way we plan, design and build our urban centres has changed rapidly over the last decades thanks to evolving needs, environmental concerns and rapidly advancing technology.

It is this combination that is helping Australian towns and cities lead the way when it comes to urban generation and regeneration.

More Accurate Surveying

Thorough surveying is the key to successful development, and it was once a laborious and time-consuming process, and therefore by necessity, an expensive one too. One modern invention has transformed this task completely, as the most forward thinking planners now utilise unmanned aerial surveying techniques.

Using the latest high-powered drones, planners and developers can now get a much more accurate and holistic picture of the land that they plan to build on. The highly detailed maps produced from the air allow clients to make more informed decisions quicker than they would otherwise have been able to, thus helping to ensure that projects come in on time and on budget.

Greener Developments

Many Australians are becoming increasingly concerned about the effect that mankind is having upon the environment, and the effects of climate change can be seen across this nation and beyond. That’s why surveyors and designers have to be very careful when planning urban developments, as it’s imperative that expanding urban centres don’t adversely impact upon our ecology or the incredible animal life that also calls Australia its home.

Today’s leading urban surveying companies put green issues at the heart of the work, using the latest computer modelling techniques to thoroughly assess the impact of an urban development upon the environment surrounding it; in this way, it’s possible to maintain the equilibrium between the need to develop new urban spaces and the need to protect our ecosystems.

Bringing Greater Benefits to Urban Dwellers

There are many factors to be considered when planning an urban development, as well as the green concerns mentioned above. It’s essential for planners to be able to make accurate assessments of what benefits their development will bring to the people who live within it and upon its neighbourhood, and this involves careful study of a wide range of metrics and projections.

The highly detailed maps produced from the air allow clients to make more informed decisions quicker

Whilst this remains a specialist and highly important job, the appearance of specialist computer programmes now allow planners to make an economic and demographic assessment that’s more accurate than ever before.

Expert urban planners know how essential it is to use all of the technological innovations now available to them, from unmanned aerial surveying, to high tech demographic assessment tools and greener planning software. This is why new urban developments bring benefits for residents and businesses, and for the economy as a whole, while still protecting the rural areas and environment that make Australia the envy of the world.

Dyne Testing and its Usefulness

Dyne Testing is a technology, a method to measure surface wettability. The low surface wettability of polymer-based substrates is the sign of poor adhesion of inks, glues and coatings. Thus, to obtain the optimum amount of adhesive it is necessary to increase the surface energy of the substrate which can be done by surface treatment with either Corona or Plasma. It will result in good wetting of the material over the surface of the substrate and hence, it improves adhesion.

For the optimum adhesion, while printing, gluing, or coating the various substrates, it is necessary to obtain high surface energy which can be obtained by Dyne Testing Markers. The fluid that is present in the Dyne Testing markers is based on ISO 8296 method for measuring the surface energy of polythene film.

When the Dyne Testing Pens are being applied to the surface, the liquid will form a continues film or will form a small trail of droplets. If it is being stretched as a film for at least 3 seconds, the substrate will have a minimum surface energy of that ink value which will be expressed in mN/m (Dynes).

The exact surface energy (Dyne level) can be determined by applying a range of increasing or decreasing values of Dyne test pens thereby taking the steps to improve its condition.

The Dyne Test Pen may lose its accuracy for which there are 3 reasons:

  1. It could get contaminated with the foreign substance
  2. It could evaporate quicker than it is expected to be
  3. And the third reason is ageing, during which chemical reactions take place among the constituents.

The experts have also faced the problem with the ageing of Dyne Testing Equipment. If their hue or color density are almost past their expiration date, it is advisable to replace them as stated by experts. The lower Dyne value states that the value stated on the bottle does not match true surface tension. You must be sure that retains the substrate used for the measurements are to be kept well sealed, free from contamination, and stored under laboratory conditions.

The ideal Dyne Testing Pen should be:

  • easy to handle,
  • perfect for the quick spot checks on the production floor,
  • very easy to read,
  • no subjectivity for this type of test,
  • no wiping off necessary,
  • lasting display of result, and
  • very striking coloring.

Conclusion

The Dyne Testing Kit by Ice-equipment.com is based on valve tip applicator and not the magic marker type. The quick test 38 pen is our most popular product amongst all and it is available in a bright red ink. This is the quick test pen which serves to check the surface treatment of all plastic substrates.

It has a shown an effect onto the material such that a stroke of the pens leaves a full line on the material if the material’s surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm. Also, as mentioned above if the materials surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm, the fluid will form small drops on the surface. The fluid applied to the surface will dry within seconds; it does not need to be wiped off anymore.

4 Reasons Why Inflatable Packer is a Must Have

Non-stop operating challenges in the field of the gas, oilfield, and underground mining has led the inflatable technology to become a mainstream go-to solution for those in jobs of high-pressure drilling, borehole measurement, and tunneling. And it is none other than the inflatable packers that have been extensively catering to the niche since a decade now. The best thing about these tools is that they easily pass through restrictions and they are extremely sturdy to stand all the extremities and challenges of their projects.

With these tools rapidly gaining the ground in almost all parts of boring, sealing and mechanical jobs, it’s probably time to take a look at what makes these testing powerhouses really an unmatched solution in the field of special civil engineering and geotechnical studies. There are a plenty of informative and reliable sources, including http://www.aardvarkpackers.com/products-list/inflatable-packers/ and others that can tell you how these tools work and benefit their users.

What is an Inflatable Packer

As the name suggests, an inflatable packer is a plug equipment that can be extended and used in a wide array of decommissioning projects more specialized in terms of hole temperature and washouts etc. These plugs are both robust and versatile in nature and can be deployed where activities like hydraulic fracturing and high-pressure permeability require an in-depth planning and execution.

It’s the pipe that makes the main body of the packer and its the outside of the pipe that can inflate multiple times its original diameter to offer the space needed for all conventional jobs like coil tubing, pumping injections, tubes, and more.

Types of Inflatable Packers

When you have a clear idea about the job, it will be easy to choose your kind of pick from a wide selection of packers. They are many types, though…

  1. Fixed end packers
  2. Single or sliding end packers available in three styles, non reinforced, partially reinforced or fully reinforced
  3. Steel fortified
  4. Wire-line packers
  5. Custom packers (metal or other combinations)

Remember, every job needs an inflatable tool that can serve the bespoke purpose.

Uses of Inflatable Packers

As already mentioned earlier, inflatable packers are used in a wide range of energy-optimized fields, including groundwater projects, dewatering, high-pressure mining, contamination, block caving, core drilling, rock blasting and other kinds of stress testing

However, below mentioned is a list of broad range applications where these inflated tools are hugely deployed…

  1. Multi-depth ground consolidation
  2. Unconsolidated material consolidation
  3. Solid rock consolidation
  4. Improvement of mechanical properties
  5. Underground soil injections
  6. Lifting injections
  7. Sealing projects
  8. Injections in foundations

So, now that you know about most of the high-key projects where packers are used, there are certain unique features that make a packer ideal for a job.

  1. Extension capability of the packer’s hose,
  2. High-pressure rating
  3. The interior measurement of the pipe
  4. The exterior measurement of the pipe
  5. Longness of the sealing section that complies with the uneven borehole

The real advantage of having an inflated tool with an increased number of features is that it will make sure you can use it in multifaceted projects.

Advantages of inflatable packers

There are four main reasons that make these tools a must-have. They are as follows:

  1. Inflatable packers are reusable

Yes, most of their parts can be used for a great number of times. All the parts from a mandrel, inflation point, rubber element to connectors are exchangeable and their models are available in different lengths.

  1. Material parts are built sturdy

A non-welded packer is made robust and its patented and reinforcing ribs offer a tighter grip in the target areas to withstand challenges and vulnerabilities during and post inflation. What’s more, the packer ensures a uniform inflation between its metal ribs to offer maximum efficiency at disposal operations.

  1. Good use in inconsistent contact pressure

The packer’s metal ribs offer reinforcing anchoring in the end subs. This allows the inflatable tool to optimize its pressure differential holding capacity in varying depths.

  1. Flawless and safe sealing

While the ribs and the high-quality threads of an inflatable packer offer a greater surface preparation, eliminating any need for using crossover sub, welding or epoxy, the larger expansion range of a packer’s valve system provides an extra room for the fluid and the sealing functions, What’s more, all its material tubes and check valves can be cleaned easily when you separate them.

But the benefits of using these tools don’t end just here. There are a tall-list of other advantages too when you buy a packer of this type.

Final Thoughts

In a nutshell, inflatable packers prove extremely efficient where a perfect decommissioning job can add hundreds of thousands of dollars to the ever-flourishing energy industry. Their proven track records make them a must-have for projects like test injections, geological boring, water pressure control and special cases like plugging and abandoning wells just to name a few. The good news is, nowadays these tools are made available just a click away. Just go through the specifications carefully and pick the one that best suits your niche.