As the name suggests, sand control is the method for controlling sand production into a wellbore. Around the world, for different gas and oil-producing wells, this is a common requirement.
Sand production can bring several issues, for example, production impairment as a result of the erosion to completion string, sand plugging, and downhole tools. For avoiding sand production, two main methods are used in oil production are as follows.
Active Sand Control
The active sand control technique is all about utilizing the filters in order to control sand production. It is also known as an intrusive measure. Below are the techniques of active and control methods in the oil and gas industry.
- Chemical consolidation.
- Gravel pack and Frack Pack.
- Expandable sand screen.
- Stand Alone screen.
Passive Sand Control
Passive sand control always utilizes non-intrusive measures for controlling, reducing, or avoiding sand production from the reservoir. Here are the techniques of following sand control methods.
- Sand management.
- Selective perforation.
- Oriented perforation.
Types Of Sand Control Screens
Now we will talk about different types of sand control screens, along with their mechanisms and usage.
1. Slotted Liner
It is one of the oldest sand control methods. Slotted liner sand control is tubing with a series of slots. All these slots are cut through a wall of tubular, and that too in an axial orientation. The width of slots is designed in such a way that it develops inter-particle bridging across the slots.
Suppose you are looking for the least expensive way to make a standalone screen. The next part of this is very simple. Here the average flow area is around 3%. But it also can go upto 6% of the total pipe area. However, a flow area of more than 6% will be detrimental to the tensile strength of the pipe.
2. Wire-Wrapped Screen
Consider a pipe, which is perforated along with a welded jacket, which is wire-wrapped. The wire, which is wrapped around the vertical ribs, has a space of keystone. It is designed to mitigate the chances of sand plugging on the screen. As there is a self-cleaning action, there is no chance of sand plugging.
In comparison to a slotted linear, a wire-wrapped screen comes with a bigger flow area and thus offers accurate slot opening along with good strength. Here are the different types of wire wrap.
- Pipe-based slip-on.
- Rod-based screens.
- Pipe-based direct build screens.
3. Premium Screens
The premium screen is basically a metal design, which comes with a metal mesh filtration and also a protective metal outer shroud. The ability to flow back the drilling fluid through the particular screen and also the plugging resistance are the main differences between premium screens and other sand screens.
As per the customer’s demand, the service provider produces different types of premium screens with different metal mesh designs. When it comes to pore throat, it can vary from around 60 microns to 300 microns. Her basic idea here is that the mesh will prevent large particles.
4. Pre-Packed Screen
Pre-packed screens are quite similar to wire-wrapped screens, but pre-packed screens have different filtration media. Here, a media gravel layer that can be with or without the resin coating is situated around the initial screen component. An external screen is also there to support it.
On the basis of the good requirements, the size and thickness of the medium layers vary. The requirements are as follows.
- Hole size.
- Flow rate.
- Formation size etc.
5. Expandable Sand Screen
The latest screen technology is the expandable screen; it comes with a perforated pipe, an outer shroud, and, lastly, a filter medium. This screen is usually runs into a wellbore, and when it comes to the usage of the expansion insert, it is for expanding the screen to the production hole diameter.
Here are some of the advantages of an expandable sand screen.
- Offers a high inflow area.
- Provides maximum hole diameter.
- Offers wellbore support.
- Effective sand control.
Here are the parts of the expandable screen.
- Integral expandable connector.
- Outer protection shroud.
- Filtration media.
- Base pipe.
We hope you have developed a proper understanding of the sand control screens and their different designs. We also understand how complicated it actually is to get grapes totally. So in case you have any doubts or queries, feel free to contact us.