Top 3 Reasons Why You Should Have a Dehumidifier at Home

Air quality is one of those things that many homeowners frequently overlook. We assume that the air indoors is better or less polluted than the air outdoors because we’re not dealing with things like car fumes and pollution.

However, your indoor air can be just as bad as the atmosphere outdoors, particularly when you have problems with humidity. Too much humidity in your air can increase the risk of things like respiratory problems, mould, and even an overflow of dust. Here are 3 reasons to consider bringing a dehumidifier into your property.

1. They Combat Mould, Mildew and Dust

Damp in your home caused by humidity can lead to mould and mildew. Often, these problems are the root cause of health issues, such as asthma, respiratory conditions, and asthma. What’s more, constant exposure to mildew and mould may even increase your chances of nervous system disorders.

Taking steps to avoid your risk of moisture build-up by keeping your sewer line clear and fixing leaky pipes is great. However, homeowners can consistently keep their risk to a minimum by investing in a dehumidifier. These crucial tools remove the extra unnecessary moisture from the air, so that it can no longer feed mould spores in your home.

Having a dehumidifier can also help you to get rid of other pesky substances like dust on your mattresses, bedspreads, and other furniture too. That’s because it’s easier for dust to cling to your surfaces when there’s moisture in the air. When the air is dry, regularly vacuuming your home will get rid of a larger portion of dust, keeping the risk of allergy to a minimum. Dehumidifiers even eliminate the risk of dust mites by keeping humidity levels at a inhospitable level for those critters.

2. They Reduce Damp and Condensation

Too much humidity in your home causes a “damp” atmosphere. When the air is moist, the most obvious result is discomfort. You might notice that your breathing feels more laboured just because you’re breathing moisture-laden air. Damp doesn’t just stay in the air however, when it reaches excessive levels, it also begins to build up on the surfaces around your home, particularly in the winter when the cold of the outdoors interacts with the warm humidity indoors.

Humidity causes long-term damage to your woodwork and soft furnishings through damp and condensation. Although it’s common to have condensation in your home from time to time, humidity exacerbates it to dangerous levels, potentially causing peeling wall papers, shrinking wood, and stains on your sofas and curtains.

A dehumidifier will reduce the moisture in the air to reasonable levels again, protecting your belongings and your comfort.

3. They Improve Air Quality for Better Health

Finally, the most important reason to invest in a dehumidifier is that they allow you to improve your air quality and eliminate common health problems. Humidity in your home can lead to an increased risk of respiratory conditions, allergens, and even problems with coughs and stuffy noses. As mould and mildew begin to build up, the effects on your health grow even greater.

Placing a dehumidifier into your home does more than just get rid of musty smells throughout your property. It also absorbs the excess moisture that could be harming your health over time. Remember, the quality of the air in your home isn’t just measured by the amount of toxins that you could be exposed to. Your air quality also depends on the level of humidity in the air too.

Dry air is less likely to feed the bacteria in the atmosphere, reducing your risk of catching bugs and respiratory illnesses. According to studies, dehumidifiers are even useful in preventing asthma attacks because they remove asthma triggers like dust mites, mould, VOCs and building wastes.

Should You Get a Dehumidifier?

In a world where indoor air quality isn’t much better than the polluted air that we find outside, it’s important to take steps to protect yourself, your family and even your home. A dehumidifier can help you to improve the air quality that you’re exposed to every day.

By eliminating the unnecessary moisture in your home, your domestic dehumidifier will improve your quality of life, reduce the risk of mould and mildew, and even protect your health.

The Importance of Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. Understanding and controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce your risk of indoor health concerns. Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later.

Health Impacts of Air Pollutants

Some health effects may show up shortly after a single exposure or repeated exposures to a pollutant. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable.

Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person’s exposure to the source of the pollution, if it can be identified. Soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants, symptoms of some diseases such as asthma may show up, be aggravated or worsened.

The likelihood of immediate reactions to indoor air pollutants depends on several factors including age and preexisting medical conditions. In some cases, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. Some people can become sensitized to biological or chemical pollutants after repeated or high level exposures.

In long-term effects, other health effects may show up either years after exposure has occurred or only after long or repeated periods of exposure. These effects, which include some respiratory diseases, heart disease and cancer, can be severely debilitating or fatal. It is prudent to try to improve the indoor air quality in your home even if symptoms are not noticeable.

Reasons for Poor Indoor Air Quality

Gas and respirable particulates in the air are the primary sources that contribute to poor IAQ. Sources can include inadequate ventilation, poorly maintained HVAC systems, cooking stoves, non-vented gas heaters, tobacco smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, building materials, carpeting, furniture, maintenance products, solvents, cleaning supplies etc.

safer-air-quality-in-home

The actual concentrations of these pollutants can also be amplified by other external factors including poor ventilation, humidity, and temperature.

Air Genius – Best Indoor Air Quality Monitor

Air Genius is a state-of-the-art indoor air quality monitor that you should have at your house or in your office to monitor the air that we breathe. The device, developed by India-based Next Sense Technologies, uses the latest sensors to determine particulate matter, VOCs, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), carbon dioxide, temperature, humidity and other important parameters.

We have taken a leap in technological advancement by relaying the data automatically to the server so that you can access the data remotely and in real-time. Through this, one could take initiatives on switching on the Air purifier or by keeping the window open for allowing the fresh air.

Typical Applications for Air Genius Indoor Air Quality Monitor

  • IAQ complaint investigation and analysis
  • HVAC system performance monitoring
  • Air quality engineering analysis
  • Mold investigation and remediation
  • Health and comfort assessment
  • Airport lounges, shopping malls, offices
  • Colleges, schools and kindergartens
  • Hospitals and healthcare establishments

For business enquiries about Air Genius Air Quality Monitor, please visit  http://www.nextsensetechnologies.com/ or contact Mr. Mohammad Hamza on +91-9540990415 or email on enggenvsolution@gmail.com or salman@bioenergyconsult.com

Thermocouples: Types and Uses

Thermocouples are sensors used to measure temperatures. These devices consist of different metals to form two wire legs forming a junction. Manufacturers weld together these two wire legs to make sure the connection is stable. Thermocouple junctions are used to check for changes in temperatures. There are different types of thermocouples available in the market, and these models have distinct characteristics and features.

The Types of Thermocouples

The manufacturing of a thermocouple requires producers to classify units with distinct color codes. Manufacturers classify these codes in either ANSI/ASTM E230 OR IEC60584. The thermocouples, their calibrations, and their color designations (in ANSI/ASTM E320) are:

  • Type K: Yellow (+) / Red (-)
  • Type T: Blue (+) / Red (-)
  • Type N: Orange (+) / Red (-)
  • Type S: Black (+) / Red (-)
  • Type C: N/A
  • Type J: White (+) / Red (-)
  • Type E: Purple (+) / Red (-)
  • Type R: Black (+) / Red (-)
  • Type B: Black (+) / Red (-)

Conversely, here are the thermocouples once more and their calibrations, but with their IEC 60584 color designations:

  • Type K: Green (+) / White (-)
  • Type T: Brown (+) / White (-)
  • Type N: Rose (+) / White (-)
  • Type S: Orange (+) / White (-)
  • Type C: N/A
  • Type J: Black (+) / White (-)
  • Type E: Purple (+) / White (-)
  • Type R: Orange (+) / White (-)
  • Type B: Orange (+) / White (-)

Thermocouple Temperature Range

Aside from the color codes, thermocouple types have specific melting points and continuous maximum temperatures. For example, the thermocouple Type B with a platinum 30% rhodium (+) composition may have a temperature range of 2,500 to 3,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Conversely, a platinum 6% rhodium (-) composition of the same thermocouple type may yield a similar temperature range.

Another example is a thermocouple type E with a chromel (+) composition. For this model, you may use it for handling temperature ranges of 200 to 1,650 degrees Fahrenheit. Still, consider the environment before using specific thermocouple types.

Uses of Thermocouples

Different thermocouple types may have diverse uses. Hospital thermometers, automotive technologies, and machines handling renewable energies might use thermocouples to help users detect changes in temperatures. Here are a few thermocouple types and their uses:

  • Type J

This thermocouple type may have an iron and Constantan leg. Various organizations in different industries find this model to be helpful in several operations. For example, it may be useful in reducing, oxidizing, and vacuuming atmospheres. Type J models may have durable constructions. Thus, these units may not require sensitive handling when installing them in other machines or industrial environments.

  • Type K

This thermocouple has a Chromel and Alumel composition for its wire legs. Consider using this type to oxidize or inert atmospheres with temperatures of up to 2,300 Fahrenheit. Companies may use this thermocouple model thanks to its relatively accurate and stable readings even at high temperatures.

  • Type N

Type N thermocouples may be akin to better Type K models. This type has a Nicrosil and Nisil composition for its wire legs. It also has a similar temperature range as the Type K. However, type N models might have better resistance than its type K counterparts thanks to its temperature cycling features. Furthermore, its hysteresis and green rot allow type N models to be more cost-effective units than type Ks.

  • Type T

A copper and Constantan composition reside in the wire legs of type T thermocouples. Like the type J models, type Ts help users reduce, oxidize, vacuum, and inert atmospheres. Still, this thermocouple class has excellent resistance against corrosion in several atmospheres. It may also offer high-stability readings at sub-zero temperatures.

  • Type E

For this thermocouple, it has one Chromel and one Constantan leg. Like the type T thermocouple, it may also be resistant to corrosion in various atmospheres. However, there’s one characteristic that may put type E thermocouples better than other models: Type Es may have the highest EMF per degree in comparison with different thermocouple types. Nonetheless, it might not be resistant to sulfurous environments.

  • Type C

Environments that have sweltering temperatures may use type C thermocouples. This model has a tungsten and rhenium composition for its wire legs. Organizations may use this thermocouple type in extremely high-temperature environments of up to 4,200 degrees Fahrenheit. While it can withstand high temperatures, this thermocouple may have a brittle construction. Proceed with caution when handling it as one false move might break the device.

Conclusion

Always consider the right thermocouple type when you want to read temperatures accurately in specific environments. For instance, consider the right thermocouple when reading temperature levels in automotive technologies and their hot engines. These devices may also activate gas shut-off modules aside from reading temperatures. Take time in researching the right model for the job to avoid complications.

Collection Systems for Agricultural Biomass

Biomass collection involves gathering, packaging, and transporting biomass to a nearby site for temporary storage. The amount of biomass resource that can be collected at a given time depends on a variety of factors. In case of agricultural residues, these considerations include the type and sequence of collection operations, the efficiency of collection equipment, tillage and crop management practices, and environmental restrictions, such as the need to control soil erosion, maintain soil productivity, and maintain soil carbon levels.

biomass-collection-systems

The most conventional method for collecting biomass is baling which can be either round or square. Some of the important modern biomass collection operations have been discussed below:

Baling

Large square bales are made with tractor pulled balers. A bale accumulator is pulled behind the baler that collects the bales in group of 4 and leaves them on the field. At a later date when available, an automatic bale collector travels through the field and collects the bales.

The automatic bale collector travels to the side of the road and unloads the bales into a stack. If the automatic bale collector is not available bales may be collected using a flat bed truck and a front end bale loader. A loader is needed at the stack yard to unload the truck and stack the bales. The stack is trapped using a forklift and manual labor.

biomass-collection

Loafing

When biomass is dry, a loafer picks the biomass from windrow and makes large stacks. The roof of the stacker acts as a press pushing the material down to increase the density of the biomass. Once filled, loafer transports the biomass to storage area and unloads the stack. The top of the stack gets the dome shape of the stacker roof and thus easily sheds water.

Dry Chop

In this system a forage harvester picks up the dry biomass from windrow, chops it into smaller pieces (2.5 – 5.0 cm). The chopped biomass is blown into a forage wagon traveling along side of the forage harvester. Once filled, the forage wagon is pulled to the side of the farm and unloaded. A piler (inclined belt conveyor) is used to pile up the material in the form of a large cone.

Wet Chop

Here a forage harvester picks up the dry or wet biomass from the windrow. The chopped biomass is blown into a forage wagon that travels along side of the harvester. Once filled, the wagon is pulled to a silage pit where biomass is compacted to produce silage.

Whole Crop Harvest

The entire material (grain and biomass) is transferred to a central location where the crop is fractionated into grain and biomass.  The McLeod Harvester developed in Canada fractionates the harvested crop into straw and graff (graff is a mixture of grain and chaff). The straw is left on the field. Grain separation from chaff and other impurities take place in a stationary system at the farmyard.

McLeod Harvester fractionates the harvested crop into straw and graff

For the whole crop baling, the crop is cut and placed in a windrow for field drying. The entire crop is then baled and transported to the processing yard. The bales are unwrapped and fed through a stationary processor that performs all the functions of a normal combine. Subsequently, the straw is re-baled.

Why it is Important to Recycle Used Filters and Oil

Illegally or inappropriately disposed of used motor oil can have a grievous impact on the environment. Studies conducted indicate that a single gallon of used oil can pollute up to a million gallons of water. Used oil filters are made of steel which means they can be recycled. In some developed countries, they are the most recycled materials and dumping them in landfills is illegal in other countries, while some have stringent laws that define how they should be disposed of.

Regulatory organizations such as the environmental protection agency reiterate that used oil filters should only be recycled or disposed of once all the free flowing oil has been drained. Presently, oil filters manufactured in the United States are not subject to dangerous waste regulation provided the filter is:

  • Hot drained then crushed
  • Broken through the anti drain valve or the dome and hot drained
  • Hot drained then dismantled

Hot draining is the process of draining the oil filter near or at engine operating temperature above 60ºF. Basically, the filter is either crushed or punctured while still warm in order to clear any surplus oil. The environmental protection agency recommends hot draining for up to 12 hours.

While lubricating oil hardly wears out, it gets dirty. Foreign bodies such as chemicals, water, dirt or even metal scrapings can mix with it and lower its performance capability. Contaminated oil should be replaced either with re-refined or virgin oil in order to execute its job appropriately.

The contaminated oil can be taken through used oil recycling procedures with studies indicating that approximately 380 million gallons of contaminated oil are recycled annually. Recycled oil is often taken through immense re-refining to eliminate all the impurities in order to produce pure oil.

The end product referred to as re-refined oil should fit similar rigorous compounding, refining, and performance principles as pure motor oil. Re-refining is an environmentally and energy valuable method of managing used motor oil. Producing a gallon or re-refined base stock requires less energy that producing crude oil base stock.

Advantages of Recycling Used Filters and Oil

Oil re-refining helps reduce heavy metal emissions and greenhouse gases as opposed to combusting it as fuel. Re-refining is an ideal way of managing used motor oil, it is environmentally friendly, and converts used oil into a renewable resource. Re-refining used motor oil reduces a nation’s reliance on foreign crude oil.

Used motor oil filters contain oil at the time of disposal. Having the ideal recycling company recover them ensures that the oil is recovered and re-refined. This also helps safeguard landfill space.

Collection of Materials

The manufacturers of oil tanks and filters are responsible for the materials. Many times, they provide big containers for disposing of the used filters especially in large volume shops. Recycling companies however can provide bins or drums for used filters while the shops provide waste oil storage facilities.

While used oil tanks will not be replaced when service providers are changed, shop managers must analyze the state of their used oil storage facilities to rule out spillage or loss when oil is transferred to an oil truck.

If need be, many recycling companies can also provide storage facilities. Used oil filters do not necessarily have to be crushed or drained before being recycled provided they are kept in a bin or drum.

What Next?

Oil filters are broken down into small fragments while the metals are removed and sold as scrap. Eventually, they are used to manufacture various products such as manhole covers and rebar. The contaminated oil is sold recycling companies. A huge percentage of the used oil is refined, drained, and used as an energy alternative to natural gas while the remaining percent is processed into hydraulic oil.

Finally

Used oil can be detrimental to water bodies and the environment in general. Companies should incorporate stringent recycling strategies for both used oil and filters to protect the environment and conserve space in landfills.

PSA System for Biogas Upgradation

Pressure swing adsoprtion, also known as PSA, is emerging as the most popular biogas upgradation technology in many parts of the world. A typical PSA system is composed of four vessels in series that are filled with adsorbent media which is capable of removing water vapor, CO2, N2 and O2 from the biogas stream.

During operation, each adsorber operates in an alternating cycle of adsorption, regeneration and pressure buildup. Dry biogas enters the system through the bottom of one of the adsorbers during the first phase of the process. When passing through the vessel, CO2, N2 and O2 are adsorbed onto the surface of the media. The gas leaving the top of the adsorber vessel contains more than 97% CH4

Biogas upgradation through PSA takes place over 4 phases: pressure build-up, adsorption, depressurization and regeneration. The pressure buildup is achieved by equilibrating pressure with a vessel that is at depressurization stage. Final pressure build up occurs by injecting raw biogas. During adsorption, CO2 and/or N2 and/or O2 are adsorbed by the media and the gas exits as CH4.

Depressurization is performed by equalizing with a second pressurizing vessel, and regeneration is achieved at atmospheric pressure, leaving a gas that contains high concentrations of CH4 to be re-circulated. During the regeneration phase, the bed must be regenerated by desorbing (or purging) the adsorbed gases. Purging is accomplished by reducing the pressure in the bed and back-flushing it with some of the concentrated gas product. The gas pressure released from one vessel is used by the other, thus reducing energy consumption and compressor capital costs.

Special adsorption materials are used as a molecular sieve, preferentially adsorbing the target gas species at high pressure. The adsorbent media is usually zeolites (crystalline polymers), carbon molecular sieves or activated carbon. Aside from their ability to discriminate between different gases, adsorbents for PSA systems are usually very porous materials chosen because of their large surface areas.

What is the Best Cordless Finish Nailer?

A finish nailer is a powerful tool that is specifically made for both experienced and DIY home users. The finish nailer uses relatively smaller nails than other cordless nail guns but is designed to handle different jobs. A finish nailer is the best bet for installing trim, crown moulding or even suitable for specific cabinets and furniture finishing.

cordless-finish-nailer-DIY

What is the best cordless finish nailer?

A ‘finish nailer’ broadly refers to one with a 16 gauge, which is a little thicker nail than the 18 gauge brads. There can be a bit of confusion due to the fact of the higher the number of gauges, the thinner the nail will be. This is due to the number of nails that you can fit per inch (for example, 16 gauge = 16 nails per inch and 18 gauge = 18 per inch). Therefore, you need the right nail for the proper work, so that the structural integrity of the material is not splinted or harmed.

Cordless finish nailers are made by different and various reputable brands such as Dewalt, Makita and Porter-Cable. Still, all these brands offer similar to little different features.

What is the greatest advantage of Cordless Finish Nailer?

A finish nailer is a versatile commodity which can also be used for various tasks such as moulding, decorating, roofing and many other jobs. This can also move the nails from thin wooden panels to dense concrete material and other various materials.

Difference between angled and straight finish nailer

Angled finishing nailers are made to be for narrow or tight spaces project. This type of finish nailer is durable to drive more substantial gauged nails. Straight finish nailers, on the other hand, are used within open spaces, and it was built with sharper nails.

Features Of Best Cordless Finish Nailer

A cordless finish nailer is a durable and versatile tool to perform a range of tasks ranging from the installation of trim to the assembly of cabinets and furnishings. It is a reasonably robust tool that is built to drive comparatively smaller nails. Here is a great article on home newtools best cordless finish nailer

Below are the key features of the best cordless finish nailer:

1. Size and Weight

To finish work is usually a multi-day, all-day task. Which means you must hold your finish nailer device in your hand for extended periods. A cordless model doesn’t have a wired cord or pneumatic hose that you need to bring and handle with you. That lowers the stress on your wrists. Although, if your finish nailer is bulky, this might have an irreversible effect on your hand. On some models, the battery can add considerable weight to the tool. The greater the battery size, the more it will weigh and the larger it will be.

A cordless finish nailer needs to get into tighter spaces and work at odd angles compared to other nailers, so size is essential. Angled versions reduce the tool’s total height and can make use in tight spaces more straightforward. Search for a smaller, cordless finish nailer with a lighter, state-of-the-art battery that weighs as little as possible to help you continue to work for longer without hand fatigue.

2. Trigger Operation

There are two primary forms of trigger: bump fire and subsequent action. Faster is a bump-fire. You keep the pressure on the trigger and press the piston in the nail where you want to drive. This is quicker, so losing track of it is easier, and there is a higher chance of accidental shooting. A sequential operation allows you to release the trigger between the nails and press it in again before the next nail is pushed. It’s slower, but it’s a little safer and controllable.

Needless to choose either one or the other. There are many models on the market which accommodate both. And, if you’re not sure which one you want, or if there are moments when you’re going to need one, look for one that has both in features. These combination finish nailers either have some internal mechanism allowing you to switch between operating modes, or they enable you to switch triggers out. Others that will enable you to change triggers also don’t come along with the extra trigger. You’ll have to buy an extra one.

3. Quality

Although, many people believe in brand reputable when choosing tool quality. This is because a reputable company always protect their name and to do this, they keep on producing a quality product.

While there is no foolproof way to upfront predict tool quality, but reading feedback and trusting a well-known organization minimizes the risks of getting poor tool.

5. User friendly

We strongly recommend that you read reviews and check product details to find a model that will comfortable in your hands, given the simple cost of a finish nailer. This is a method that is expected to deliver reliable results depending on how you treat it. The standard of the job starts with your hand. It is believed anybody will want to choose a  non-cumbersome finish nailer.

best-cordless-nailer

6. Lighting

With LED light features, a finish nailer makes its way within dark spaces such as cabinets or low-light areas, like baseboards. A cordless model with LED lights will directly transmit shadowless light to the surface, so you will see what you are doing without external lighting.

7. Higher Nail Capacity

This is one of the essential features a best cordless finish nailer you have. Having higher nail capacity will assist you in concentrating on the work through the elimination of frequently nail refilled. Another benefit of higher nail capacity is that it saves time.

8. Nail Depth

Precision hitting is outstanding as firing is. Finishing nailer is expected to hit the appropriate depth of the nail. Many finishing nailers come with an adjustable depth sensor that helps you to set precision depth. So, when choosing your finishing nail to ensure it offers consistent nail depth across a variety of types of materials.

9. Jam Clearing

Tool-free jam clearing is one a great feature expected to look for in a finish nailer. Nail jam may occur at a time, and if your nailer does not possess smooth jam-free. There may be some difficulties in hunting down the nailer.

Although, jamming can be held to a minimum by keeping your nailer in place and making sure you use the right nails.

10. Warranty

An extended warranty is an indication that the manufacturer has faith in its materials and manufacturing. Search for the longest available warranty and a money-back guarantee just in case you are not satisfied with tools.

Final Word + Recommendation

Finish Nailer is commonly regarded as a technical tool, but this innovative tool has significantly changed the finishing game. This is the reason almost everybody or hobbyists are now using the device to execute their various projects. A cordless finish nailer is a versatile woodworker tool that helps to punch the nails seamlessly, and gives the woodworks a clean and finished look.

Cordless finish nailers are fantastic, and there are plenty of models available which you can select the right cordless finish nailer to suit your work needs.

How To Tackle Vibrations Using A Coriolis Mass Flow Meter

Coriolis mass flow meters are acknowledged or well-known as an extremely precise and accurate flow measuring device. Plus, it offers plenty of benefits than other instruments. But take note that every measuring principle has its obstacles, and it is also true for the Coriolis principle.

For the most part, it can be difficult and hard to use Coriolis devices in most low flow applications in industries manufacturing large and heavy products. In these applications, you might have to face all types of vibrations.

Thus, the question is, how can you deal with these vibrations using the coriolis mass flow meter. For a little help, we will walk you through how to deal with all types of vibrations. So, take a read!

Coriolis Principle

This flow measuring device provides multiple benefits and advantages compared to other measuring instruments. First and foremost, coriolis flow meters calculate or gauge direct mass flow.

For many industries, it is a critical feature because it removes or eradicates inaccuracies induced by the fluid’s physical properties or characteristics. Aside from this, coriolis flow meters are extremely precise and accurate, have no mechanical parts in motion, have immense repeatability, a towering dynamic range, and many more.

The coriolis principle is simple yet very effective. Its operating principle is all around us in this world, such as the rotation of the earth and its impact on the weather. Coriolis flow meters have a tube powered by a fixed vibration. So, when a liquid or gas traverses through this tunnel or duct, the mass flow momentum will, more often than not, create a change or alteration in the vibration of the tube.

Then, the duct will contort culminating a phase shift. This shift can be calculated or computed deriving a linear output corresponding to the flow. As the coriolis principle calculates mass flow regardless of what’s inside the tube, it can be, for the most part, promptly implemented to any fluid traversing through it, gas or liquid.

While the thermal mass flow instruments are reliant on the fluid’s physical properties, thus, similar to the phase shift in frequency between outlet and inlet, it’s possible to calculate the actual natural frequency change.

This frequency change is incongruity to the fluid’s density, and it can derive a further signal output. It’s possible to calculate the volume flow rate having computed both the density and the mass flow rate.

How it Works

Coriolis mass flow meters calculate or gauges the mass via inertia. A dense gas or liquid moves or traverse through a tunnel or duct which is pulsated by a small actuator. This vibration generates a measurable contorting force on the duct corresponding to the mass. More advanced models of this flow measuring technology apply dual-curved tunnels for lower pressure drop and higher sensitivity.

Although considered or known as the most precise flow meters, coriolis mass flow meters are prone to errors or inaccuracies when bubbles are existing in the liquid. These bubbles can produce or generate splashing inside the tube, make noise, and modify or alter the energy required for tube vibration. Huge spaces boost the energy required for tube vibration in excess and can end up in complete failure.

Impact of Vibrations on Accuracy of Coriolis Flow Meters

In manufacturing, factory, commercial, business, trade applications, all types of vibrations with various sizes are eminently common. Coriolis mass flow meters calculate a mass flow through a vibrating sensor duct, which variation gets purposely out of phase when the gas or liquid traverses through.

This technique or approach is relatively susceptible to unnecessary vibrations with a recurrence close to the sensor tube’s resonance frequency or a towering concordant of this frequency. However, it depends on the design of the sensor tube.

The odds of the frequency of these unnecessary vibrations is greater than in an industrial environment. Manufacturers of coriolis mass flow meters do their best to minimize the effect of vibrations on the measurement using some technical solutions including pigtails, active and passive vibration compensation, mass inertia, different sensor shapes, dual-sensor tubes, and higher driving frequencies.

In other words, vibrations can affect the accuracy of the measurements of coriolis mass flow meters. However, only if the frequency of the vibrations is close to the concordant frequency.

Types of Vibrations

In industrial applications, vibrations can be produced by usage-based vibration sources, building-based vibration sources, and environmentally related vibration sources. These vibrations move or traverse through a medium such as the fluid itself, through pipes, in the air, or the floor. If any of these vibrations disrupt the frequency of the device, then the output could be incorrect.

Takeaway

It is helpful to determine the sources to lessen or reduce the effects of unwanted vibrations. Oftentimes, it’s possible to move the measuring device or instrument just a little bit, take advantage of huge mass blocks, use suspension alternatives, or use flexible tubes.

Biomass Conveyors: An Overview

A well designed biomass conveyor system should take into account the variability of the material and provide the consistent and reliable flow that is crucial to power generation. Depending upon the type of boiler and conversion system, the fuel is either transported directly to the powerhouse via a belt conveyor, or first processed in a chipper/grinder to produce a finer texture.

For example, municipal solid waste is deposited into pits where cranes mix the refuse and remove any large, non-combustible items. Sometimes, it is further processed to remove ferrous materials, glass, and other non-combustible materials.

Biomass_Conveyor

For large pellet-fired biomass system, rail dump method is very common where railway tracks are constructed to transport biomass. Station is specified for train and fuel receiving bins are typically located below the track and rail cars dump into bins, either directly or through a rotary dumper. Fuel received is then transferred by belt conveyors to the biomass storage bins.

For small particle size, pneumatic conveying system offer greater flexibility in routing than traditional belt conveyors. Equipment specific to pneumatic systems include positive displacement blowers and rotary feeders that function as air locks.

In a typical biomass thermal power plant, the initial process in the power generation is biomass fuel handling. A railway siding line is taken into the power station and the biomass is delivered in the storage yard. It is then unloaded from the point of delivery by means of wagon tippler. It is rack and pinion type. The biomass is taken from the unloading site to dead storage by belt conveyors. The belt deliver the biomass to warehouse.

The transfer points inside the warehouse are used to transfer biomass to the next belt. The belt elevates the biomass to breaker house. It consists of a rotary machine, which rotates the biomass and separates the light inorganic materials (viz. plastic or other incombustible particles) from it through the action of gravity and transfer it to reject bin house through belt. The belt further elevates the biomass until it reaches the crusher through belt.

In the crusher a high-speed 3-phase induction motor is used to crush the biomass according to the requirement, for gasification size range is usually upto 15-20mm, while for biomass-fired boiler, size of 50mm is acceptable. Biomass rises from crusher house and reaches the dead storage.

Cost-effective production of biomass energy is very much dependent on efficient handling of available biomass sources, as well as the efficiency of each process. An important, but often overlooked, area is the efficient receiving of different types and different capacities of biomass as it enters the plant and then conveying this material to the production equipment.  In many cases, the space available for biomass handling is limited.

Receiving equipment can be installed in a pit or at the ground level. The size and volume of the receiving pocket can be suited to vehicle volumes or turn-around times. The receiving pit can be used as small buffer biomass storage or as an emergency or mixing pocket.

Belt conveyors are an economical and reliable choice for transferring biomass over long distances at high capacities with lower noise levels. Designs range from simple, open configurations to totally closed and washable conveyor galleries. Well engineered conveyors have the maximum safe distance between support legs to minimize the cost of civil construction as well as reducing the number of obstructions on the ground.

Chain conveyors are a reliable choice for transporting unscreened or dusty biomass, or when the available space is limited. Screw conveyors are a very economical alternative for transporting biomass over short distances.

Biomass conveyors are an integral feature of all biomass conversion routes

Nowadays, automated conveyor systems are getting traction around the world. Fully automated fuel handling systems employ a biomass storage bin that can hold upto 50 tons (or more) of biomass. The bin is filled by a self-unloading truck with negligible or no onsite staff assistance. From the biomass storage bunker, the fuel is fed automatically to the boiler by augers and conveyors. The fully automated system is a good match for biomass plants where maintenance staff has a large work load and cannot spend much time working with the biomass conversion plant.

Pellet-based hopper systems offer low costs for both installation and operation. In a modern biomass pellet boiler system, fuel is stored in a relatively low-cost grain silo and automatically fed, with no operator intervention, to the boiler or boilers with auger systems similar to those used for conveying feed grain on farms.

The fuel-handling system uses electric motors and is run by automated controls that provide the right amount of fuel to the combustion chamber based on facility demand. Such conveyor systems require minimal maintenance, around 20-30 minutes daily, for ash removal and maintenance of motors and augers, estimated to be about 20-30 minutes per day.

Shedding Light on Non-Destructive Testing with Ultraviolet Lamps

Non-destructive testing (NDT) can be simplistically described as a method used to conduct an inspection without moving or breaking the item or surrounding area under examination. Although not limited to medicine, aerospace, and industry, these three large sectors are particularly dependent on non-destructive inspection methodologies. One of the most helpful tools for NDT is the Ultraviolet (UV) lamp. Let’s take a brief look at the presence of UV lamps in NDT settings.

Non-destructive testing is a broad field

The definition of NDT can be quite broad unless one limits its description to a test, evaluation, or inspection, in a particular field of engineering or medicine. As well, the type of inspection that is required also comes from a long list of possibilities.

Non Destructive Testing

Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Inspection (FMPI or MT) and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI or PT) are strongly associated with the use of fluorescent lighting and NDT.

Let the light come in

UV light is longer than X-rays, and shorter than visible white light, placing it into the 10 to 400 nm wavelength range. Known as black light, non-visible UV light can be harmful. The shorter UV-C rays, up to 290 nm, however, rarely reach the earth, and this is fortunate. Also be wary of UV-B rays, which are responsible for sunburns. The longer rays of UV-A, between 320 and 400 nm, are the least dangerous to humans.

In the past, magnetic particle penetrants used a mercury base, which became fluorescent with a UV-A light of 365.4 nm. This led to the requirement of today’s UV light sources for NDT. The standard requirement for a peak wavelength is between 360 – 370 mm.

The UV lamp advantage

One aspect of UV lighting that gives it the edge is that it provides visibility into the area under inspection where otherwise, there is none. The magnetic particles or penetrants that are applied to the surfaces of the areas to be inspected become fluorescent, providing visibility into the tiniest of flaws, such as cracks, breaks, and positioning changes.

What to look for in a UV lamp

There are UV lamps and then there are UV lamps. To achieve the most efficient, successful, and safe examinations, it is important to choose the correct UV lamp for the task at hand.

LED illumination

UV LED lamps are highly recommended for non-destructive testing. In fact, for the most part, LED lamps have replaced incandescent and fluorescent lamps, which may not be easily available in the near future.

UV Lamp

However, some legacy UV lamps can be modified to accept LED bulbs. UV LED lamps are lighter, making them very manageable. The bulbs are long-lasting, not prone to fading, and can be housed in cooler casings.

Handheld or stationary

The advantage of handheld UV LED lamps is, of course, their portability and their low energy consumption. However, unlike their predecessors, the mercury vapor bulbs, they do not offer the intensity and the wide beams that are required in some inspections.

Meeting the challenge, some UV lamp producers are using LED lighting to create stationary overhead lamps with intense, wide beam coverage, and adaptable frames, allowing easy vigilance over production in assembly lines. This is a low-cost alternative to frequently-replaced fluorescent bulbs.

The importance of a filter

With a peak wavelength between 360 – 370 nm, violet tail emissions of visible light above 400 nm can mask flaws and cracks with light glare. A filter improves visibility by providing more contrast.

Additional considerations

Science and engineering are always in flux. Similarly, developments in the field of non-destructive testing brings with it much to consider.

  • With the introduction of LED bulbs in UV light sources, dangers resulting from potential accidents in non-invasive fault-seeking, are no longer concerns. Burns resulting from filaments in mercury vapor are becoming a thing of the past. With less electrical demands from LED bulbs, power supplies can be lightweight, making the lamp easier to handle in tough conditions.
  • Just the fact that mercury will no longer be needed is enough of a cause for celebration.
  • Visibility with LED lamps is instantaneous.
  • For some conditions, a narrower beam is required. NDT requirements must lead the way when determining the lamp’s specifications for a particular type of inspection.
  • One challenge that designers are working on is the emission of heat flux at the emitters of UV LED lamps. This is a result of smaller technology with increased energy levels.

Non-destructive testing has broadened its scope over the years, giving rise to compliance standards for specific NDT applications. The most well-known compliance standard to look for in UV-A lamps for NDT with FMPI and FPI, is the ASTM E3022 standard. Whatever the standards of compliance are for a particular industry, non-destructive testing and its reliance on dependable lighting for inspections, is now an important branch of engineering in its own right.