Popular Feedstock for Biogas Plants

Anaerobic digestion is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion.

Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to wet organic material and is commonly used for effluent and sewage treatment.  The popular feedstock for biogas plants includes biodegradable waste materials such as waste paper, grass clippings, leftover food, sewage and animal waste.

Large quantity of waste, in both solid and liquid forms, is generated by the industrial sector like breweries, sugar mills, distilleries, food processing industries, tanneries, and paper and pulp industries. Poultry waste has the highest per ton energy potential of electricity per ton but livestock have the greatest potential for energy generation in the agricultural sector.

1. Agricultural Feedstock

2. Community-Based Feedstock

  • Organic fraction of MSW (OFMSW)
  • MSW
  • Sewage sludge
  • Grass clippings/garden waste
  • Food wastes
  • Institutional wastes etc.

 3. Industrial Feedstock

  • Food/beverage processing
  • Dairy
  • Starch industry
  • Sugar industry
  • Pharmaceutical industry
  • Cosmetic industry
  • Biochemical industry
  • Pulp and paper
  • Slaughterhouse/rendering plant etc.

Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to wet organic material and is commonly used for effluent and sewage treatment. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion process. This includes biodegradable waste materials such as waste paper, grass clippings, leftover food, sewage and animal waste. The exception to this is woody wastes that are largely unaffected by digestion as most anaerobic microorganisms are unable to degrade lignin.

Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with specially grown energy crops such as silage for dedicated biogas production. A wide range of crops, especially C-4 plants, demonstrate good biogas potentials. Corn is one of the most popular co-substrate in Germany while Sudan grass is grown as an energy crop for co-digestion in Austria. Crops like maize, sunflower, grass, beets etc., are finding increasing use in agricultural digesters as co-substrates as well as single substrate.

A wide range of organic substances are anaerobically easily degradable without major pretreatment. Among these are leachates, slops, sludges, oils, fats or whey. Some wastes can form inhibiting metabolites (e.g.NH3) during anaerobic digestion which require higher dilutions with substrates like manure or sewage sludge. A number of other waste materials often require pre-treatment steps (e.g. source separated municipal organic waste, food residuals, expired food, market wastes and crop residues).

About Salman Zafar

Salman Zafar is the CEO of BioEnergy Consult, and an international consultant, advisor and trainer with expertise in waste management, biomass energy, waste-to-energy, environment protection and resource conservation. His geographical areas of focus include Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Salman has successfully accomplished a wide range of projects in the areas of biogas technology, biomass energy, waste-to-energy, recycling and waste management. Salman has participated in numerous national and international conferences all over the world. He is a prolific environmental journalist, and has authored more than 300 articles in reputed journals, magazines and websites. In addition, he is proactively engaged in creating mass awareness on renewable energy, waste management and environmental sustainability through his blogs and portals. Salman can be reached at salman@bioenergyconsult.com or salman@cleantechloops.com.
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11 Responses to Popular Feedstock for Biogas Plants

  1. mckenziepuhl says:

    This is well written article and highly informative. I was thinking about possible organic waste materials that might be feasible for a project and came upon a video that shows large quantities of maize crop waste being utilized as a biogas plant feedstock.

    I would be interested to know whether Salman has seen any projects which use this as an anaerobic digestion plant feedstock?

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  4. Prof. Srinivasa Kunuthur says:

    Is it possible to replace LPG for domestic fuel use, with biogas production and supply in India? If so, what are the constraints to establish biogas plants across India?

    • Salman Zafar says:

      Unfortunately biogas production in India is not enough to replace LPG. India needs biogas plants on small, medium and large-scales in order to make a meaningful difference in domestic cooking fuel sector.
      In my opinion, the key hurdles are high cost of plants/technology, lack of skilled manpower, lack of focus on crop residues as biogas feedstock, lack of funding, lukewarm governmental support and lack of public awareness.
      Hope you agree with my views.
      Best wishes

      Salman Zafar

  5. Atmos Power Pvt Ltd says:

    Nice post.

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