Vietnam is one of the few countries having a low level of energy consumption in the developing world with an estimated amount of 210 kg of oil equivalent per capita/year. A significant portion of the Vietnamese population does not have access to electricity. Vietnam is facing the difficult challenge of maintaining this growth in a sustainable manner, with no or minimal adverse impacts on society and the environment.
Being an agricultural country, Vietnam has very good biomass energy potential. Agricultural wastes are most abundant in the Mekong Delta region with approximately 50% of the amount of the whole country and Red River Delta with 15%. Major biomass resources includes rice husk from paddy milling stations, bagasse from sugar factories, coffee husk from coffee processing plants in the Central Highlands and wood chip from wood processing industries. Vietnam has set a target of having a combined capacity of 500 MW of biomass power by 2020, which is raised to 2,000 MW in 2030.
Rice husk and bagasse are the biomass resources with the greatest economic potential, estimated at 50 MW and 150 MW respectively. Biomass fuels sources that can also be developed include forest wood, rubber wood, logging residues, saw mill residues, sugar cane residues, bagasse, coffee husk and coconut residues.
Currently biomass is generally treated as a non-commercial energy source, and collected and used locally. Nearly 40 bagasse-based biomass power plants have been developed with a total designed capacity of 150 MW but they are still unable to connect with the national grid due to current low power prices. Five cogeneration systems selling extra electricity to national grid at average price of 4 US cents/kWh.
Biogas potential is approximately 10 billion m3/year, which can be collected from landfills, animal excrements, agricultural residues, industrial wastewater etc. The biogas potential in the country is large due to livestock population of more than 30 million, mostly pigs, cattle, and water buffalo. Although most livestock dung already is used in feeding fish and fertilizing fields and gardens, there is potential for higher-value utilization through biogas production.
It is estimated that more than 25,000 household biogas digesters with 1 to 50 m3, have been installed in rural areas. The Dutch-funded Biogas Program operated by SNV Vietnam constructed some 18,000 biogas facilities in 12 provinces between 2003 and 2005, with a second phase (2007-2010) target of 150,000 biogas tanks in both rural and semi-urban settings.
Municipal solid waste is also a good biomass resource as the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily over the last few decades. In 1996, the average amount of waste produced per year was 5.9 million tons per annum which rose to 28 million tons per in 2008 and expected to reach 44 million tons per year by 2015.