A Glance at Biggest Dumpsites in Nigeria

Waste dumping is the predominant method for solid waste disposal in developing countries worldwide, and Nigeria is no exception. Nigeria is home to six of the biggest dumpsites in Africa, according to Waste Atlas 2014 report on World’s 50 Biggest Dumpsites published by D-Waste. These dumpsites are located in three most important cities in Nigeria namely, Lagos, Port Harcourt and Ibadan.

Let us have a quick look at these notorious waste dumps:

Olusosun

Olusosun is the largest dumpsite not only in Lagos but in Nigeria and receives about 2.1 million tonnes of waste annually comprising mostly of municipal solid waste, construction waste, and electronic waste (e-waste). The dumpsite covers an area of about 43 hectares and it is 18 meters deep.

The dumpsite has been in existence since 1992 and has housed about 24.5 million tonnes of waste since then. A population of about 5 million people lives around 10km radius from the site and numerous health problems like skin irritation, dysentery, water-related diseases, nausea etc. have been reported by residents living around 3km radius from the site.

Solous 2

It is located in Lagos and occupies around 8 hectares of land along Lasu-Iba road. The dumpsite receives about 820,000 tonnes of waste annually and has since its existence in 2006 accepted around 5.8 million tonnes of MSW.

Solous is just 200 meters away from the nearest dwellings and almost 4 million people live within 10km radius from the site. Due to the vulnerable sand formation of the area, leachate produced at the dumpsite flows into groundwater causing its contamination.

Epe

Epe dumpsite also in Lagos occupies about 80 hectares of land. The dumpsite was opened in 2010 and has an annual input of 12,000 tonnes of MSW. Epe is the dumpsite which the Lagos State government is planning to upgrade to an engineered landfill and set to replace Olusosun dumpsite after its closure.

Since its existence, it has received about 47,000 tonnes of waste and it is just 500 meters away from the nearest settlement. The dumpsite is also just 2km away from Osogbo River and 7km away from Lekki Lagoon.

Awotan (Apete)

The dumpsite is located in Ibadan and has been in existence since 1998 receiving 36,000 tonnes of MSW annually. It covers an area of 14 hectares and already has in place almost 525,000 tonnes of waste.

The dumpsite is close to Eleyele Lake (2.5km away) and IITA Forest Reserve (4.5km away). The nearest settlement to the dumpsite is just 200 meters away and groundwater contamination has been reported by nearby residents.

Lapite

Lapite dumpsite is also located in Ibadan occupies an area of 20 hectares receiving around 9,000 tonnes of MSW yearly. Since its existence in 1998, it has housed almost 137,000 tonnes of MSW. It is 9km away from IITA Forest Reserve and surrounded by vegetations on both sides of the road since the dumpsite is directly opposite a major road.

Olusosun is the largest dumpsite in Nigeria

The nearest settlement is about 2km away but due to the heavy metals present in the leachate produced in the waste dump, its leakage poses a great threat to groundwater and biodiversity in the area.

Eneka

It is located in Port Harcourt, the commercial hub of South-South, Nigeria along Igwuruta/Eneka road and 9km from Okpoka River and Otamiri River. It receives around 45,600 tonnes of MSW annually and already has about 12 million tonnes of waste in place.

The site lies in an area of 5 hectares and it is flooded almost all year round as rainfall in the area exceeds 2,500mm per annum. Due to this and the resultant flow of the flood which would have mixed with dumpsite leachate; groundwater, surface water, and soil contamination affect the 1.2 million people living around 10km radius from the site as the nearest building is just 200 meters away.

Note: Note: The original version of the article was published on Waste Watch Africa website at this link.

A Glance at College Recycling Programs

Just one look at your local landfill is enough to convince you that there is a need for more recycling programs. Recycling should be a priority for all institutions across the country. College recycling programs ensure that such institutions make a contribution to environmental conservation.

Every student should have a recycle bin where they dispose of recyclable materials like paper, batteries, water bottles, and so much more. The world is going through a green resource transition, and college institutions should not be left behind.

 

Local communities can also borrow a leaf from college institutions and recycle their waste. The internet is quite resourceful when it comes to researching how a recycling program should work. Students can also use online resources to make their school life easier. For instance, thesis writing services ensure students get the marks they need to graduate.

1. American University

American University strives to be 100% waste-free. Its zero waste policy was adopted in 2010, and since then, the institution has had significant milestones. The system ensures that all university wastes are diverted from landfills. AU uses only renewable materials to ensure no waste is going into the environment.

The university’s environmental conservation efforts ensure it maintains a healthy student community. AU’s fraternity practices sustainable purchasing to maintain an environmentally-friendly campus.

AU makes paper towels from restrooms as well as kitchen wastes. The elimination of water bottles and food trays also helps cut down on wastes. The kitchen grease is recycled for electricity to help manage utility bills.

This institution has one of the finest recycling systems in America’s academic scene. In 2012, the school beat over 600 other universities at a RecycleMania contest.

2. Valencia College

Valencia College has a decade-old recycling system that’s updated each year. The institution has established itself as the model for university sustainability by bagging RecycleMania gold for waste minimization from 2012 through to 2014.

The school encourages students to reduce their waste output. It has a seamless paper, aluminum, plastic, and e-waste management system in place. The school no longer uses water bottles as this is the source of plastic waste in many institutions. Valencia College recycling program aims to reduce the institution’s carbon footprint.

3. College of the Atlantic

College of the Atlantic is well known as the greenest university college in the country. The institution’s recycling system is a comprehensive program that offers outlets for all types of waste.

Aside from outlets for food, the university also has units for composting disposable flatware and kitchen napkins. For foods that cannot be recycled, the campus uses these as a source of renewable energy. The recycling program is run by students to teach them the importance of environmental conservation.

4. University of California

One of University California’s goals is to achieve zero waste by 2020. A 90% waste diversion from landfills will have a significantly positive impact on the environment. The campus also aims to phase out procurement and distribution of Expanded Polystyrene.

Within the institution, is a hub for repurposing items. Students also collect leftover food in their rooms. The school rethinks daily operations to achieve a comprehensive diversion campaign.

5. Kalamazoo College

Kalamazoo College is another higher learning institution with comprehensive waste management and recycling program. The school not only recycles but also donates stationery, mirrors, lamps, and so much more to the surrounding community.

The school’s recycling department handles the exportation of food waste to a local pig farm. Kalamazoo College also recycles e-wastes like batteries, calculators and electric motors.

In addition to recycling, the department also takes up reuse and waste reduction responsibilities. The recycling department is run by students under the supervision of staff in charge. This way, students can understand just how much waste goes into the environment. The campus has two dedicated electric-powered golf carts that help with transportation of waste.

6.     Harvard University

Harvard University is one of the institutions that adopted the single-stream recycling. This means that all recyclable materials are mixed together in one receptacle. This is an effective system because it eliminates any confusion or guesswork.

The school runs a recycling program for different kinds of waste, including e-waste, food, ink, paper, and cartridges. Over the years, the recycling program has evolved and improved in efficacy. The school uses competitions to encourage students to reduce waste.

Conclusion

College recycling programs ensure students learn the importance of environment conservation. Institutions of higher learning are an excellent platform to teach students about environmental friendliness. Diverting waste from landfills ensures they don’t overflow with items that can be reused or recycled.

How to Deal with Old Electrical Items

We all cherish our electronic devices, from our laptops and mobile phones to our beloved household appliances such as our refrigerators and washing machines. But when these electric appliances become outdated or reach the end of their useful life, they become electronic waste and that’s a big problem.

Whether they’re complete junk or still in good shape, no matter what, you should never just throw an old electronic device in the trash. So how should you deal with old electrical items? Read on to discover some ideas on how you can deal with them.

electrical-waste-uk

Repair

Millions of tons of e-waste are discarded every year and a very small percentage of them are disposed of properly, all this isn’t good for our environment. Many of the devices we throw away haven’t reached the end of their useful life so before you get rid of them, make sure they are really unusable.

Whether your phone has stopped working or your washing machine is making funny sounds, the first step to take would be to consult an expert. A specialized electrician will accurately diagnose the state of your device and help you determine the best way to deal with it. Sometimes all you need is for an electrician to simply replace one of the device’s parts and it’s almost as good as new.

You can also try to repair some of your old appliances and devices yourself, some items just need a bit of fixing and connecting loose wires. When fixing an item yourself, check the product’s user manual or look for online resources to find the best and safest way to go about it.

Replace your throwaway habits with repairing ones and reduce your e-waste footprint while saving money. Whether you do it yourself or hire a professional, this will help you reduce any expensive repair costs later on and can greatly extend the lifetime of your devices.

Reuse

There are many ways you can pass on your unwanted items for reuse. If you decide that you want to dispose of an electrical item, consider selling or donating it. Alternatively, some old devices can be traded-in for new ones for a discounted price.

If your items are old but in good quality why not turn them into money? Second-hand electrics are much cheaper to buy. You can easily sell your old electronics online nowadays. The value of a used electrical item varies greatly depending on the condition, age, and current market price, consider all these elements before posting your item for sale to get the maximum value.

The best time to sell old phones and laptops is before new models are announced, so if you’re seeing headlines about an upcoming phone, it might be the right time to list your old unwanted one.

While you may make more money by selling your old devices, nothing beats the convenience of trading in your old gadget for an upgraded one. Some electronics manufacturers and retailers offer trade-in programs that give you cash or gift cards in exchange for your old electrics if they’re in good shape, others let you trade your unwanted device for a reduced price on a new one. Check the company website of your brand or retailer for details on its program.

Donating to charity is a great way to pass on your unwanted items while helping those in need. Check your local non-profit organization or look for reuse programs that will donate your old devices to people who need them or restore and resell them in support of a variety of good causes.

Before donating your old electrical items, make sure that they still function reliably and that they don’t require major repairs or parts replacement.

You don’t want personal or sensitive information to fall into a stranger’s hand. Before selling or donating your old phone or laptop, retrieve some important stuff that you want to keep like photos, passwords, contacts, and music. Once you’ve backed them up, wipe the device completely clean.

Every time new items are made, resources and raw materials are used. The process of extracting and using these materials creates substantial air and water pollution. We can help reduce these environmental effects and save energy by reusing items whenever possible.

Recycle

Recycling old household electrical appliances and electronic devices is usually an easy process thanks to the variety of options available.

Some electronics manufacturers and retailers offer recycling programs for their products, call ahead or visit their official websites to make sure the branch near you is accepting your items. You can also find recycling kiosks in many stores where you can drop off old batteries, wires, cords, and cables.

Plenty of nonprofit organizations, local communities, and official organizations also offer services to help you recycle old electronics. Moreover, several cities and towns around the world now have a local e-recycling center. Look for the nearest trusted recycling service or certified facility in your area to safely get rid of your unwanted electrical items.

To check if an old electrical item is recyclable, simply ask the following questions and if the answer is yes, it’s recyclable:

  • Does it have a plug?
  • Does it use batteries?
  • Does it need charging?
  • Does it have a picture of a crossed-out bin on it?

Some of the most common recyclable electric items include

  • Printer cartridges
  • Refrigerators
  • TVs
  • Mobile phones
  • Electric toothbrushes and shavers
  • Laptops
  • Watches
  • Cameras
  • Treadmills

Correctly disposing of e-waste ensures that the hazardous materials such as lead and mercury can be treated appropriately and the recyclable components including plastics, glass, and metal can be recovered for reuse. If your electrical item is deemed unfixable or unusable, responsibly dispose of it through recycling.

Approximately 25% of the electrical items thrown away can still function and most of the rest can be fixed. Always remember the three Rs; repair, reuse, and recycle when dealing with your old electrical items. You’ve got the resources at your fingertips to repair or reuse so many things, consider those first and if all else fails, look for the nearest certified recycling center.

An Easy Guide to Make Your Business Sustainable

The adoption of sustainable practices is an opportunity for growth, but it also presents a challenge. Though you’ll eventually enjoy the economic and environmental benefits of your changes, implementing them takes commitment. You need to approach the transition with subtlety.

So what are the main points to keep in mind as you continue? What are practical strategies to reduce carbon emissions and excessive commercial waste? We’ll answer those questions and others like them, providing an easy guide for professionals who want to improve their standard of sustainability.

1. Assign a Sustainability Team Lead

One of the key factors in your success is communication. You need every employee to understand and accept your proposed changes, and that coordination is no small responsibility. If you’re going to increase sustainability in your workplace, you’ll need the assistance of a sustainability team lead.

Their role is to share your objectives with other employees and encourage them to adapt their behavior. They serve as an advocate for your new policies, putting them into action and helping others do the same. In short, your sustainability team lead will facilitate cooperation.

2. Invest in Practical Adjustments

When you’re operating a business, your bottom line is your top priority. You can’t afford to make changes if they compromise your profitability. Fortunately, you don’t need to make that kind of sacrifice, as certain practices are beneficial for both the environment and your expenses.

As an example, you can digitize documents to limit paper waste and lower the costs of printing and ink. You can also connect a group of devices to a single power strip, then turn it off when you leave the office. It’s a simple adjustment which will increase the lifespan of your devices and reduce e-waste.

3. Maintain Careful Record-Keeping

Over the past two years, many companies have engaged in the practice of sustainability reporting. Investors are starting to ask for this type of report, and if business owners are unable to provide it, they may encounter issues. Naturally, you need to give thought to record-keeping.

Are you documenting your changes? Do you have the necessary information from project and property managers? Investors need more than a promise to feel secure in your company’s improvements, and you can instill confidence when you offer reports with the relevant data.

4. Work With Similar Companies

Many companies have made it their goal to “go green,” and you should seek their support. Check for a list of green vendors in your area, and when you find one that meets your needs, reach out. You’ll come across sustainable alternatives for many products and services you currently depend on.

You may benefit from an eco-friendly cleaning service if your present service isn’t adequate. On a smaller scale, you can purchase business cards from a company that uses recycled materials. The point remains the same: You have options, and you should explore them.

5. Keep Convenience in Mind

As you modify your office, consider the convenience of your changes. An employee is far more likely to recycle paper and plastic products when they can easily access a recycling bin. If you’ve placed the bin in a location that doesn’t see much foot traffic, you’re not going to get the results you want.

Naturally, the ideal place for a recycling bin is the lunchroom or a similar area where your employees tend to congregate. The choice to recycle shouldn’t take more effort than the choice to use a conventional bin. Make both bins available to employees and trust them to make the correct decision.

6. Start Planning Today

Sustainability isn’t as simple as it first seems. A business owner may have good intentions, but unless they take time to prepare, their initiative won’t yield the desired results. With that in mind, review the steps in this guide and start planning your sustainability program today.

E-Waste Management in the GCC: Perspectives

The growing amount of e-waste is gaining more and more attention on the global agenda. In 2017, e-waste production is expected to reach up to 48 million metric tons worldwide. The biggest contributors to this volume are highly developed nations, with the top three places of this inglorious ranking going to Norway, Switzerland and Iceland.

In Norway, each inhabitant produces a massive 28.3 kg of e-waste every year. Not far behind the top ten of this ranking lie GCC member states, with both Kuwait and UAE producing each 17.2 kg e-waste per capita per year. Saudi Arabia with its many times larger population produces least e-waste per capita among all GCC countries, with 12.5 kg a year.

Link between Development and E-Waste

Recent research suggests that there is evidence of a strong link between economic development and the generation of e-waste.  Due to rapid urbanization growth rates along with a substantial increase in the standard of living, more people develop a consumerist culture. With rising disposable income, people replace their technology more frequently, as soon there are upgraded gadgets on the market. This development is aggravated by technological progress, which renders shorter life spans of products.

Complexity of E-Waste

E-waste is not only a fast-growing waste stream but also complex, as it contains a large variety of different products. This makes it extremely difficult to manage. The rapid technology development and the emergence of items such as smart clothes will render e-waste management even more difficult in the future. Dealing with e-waste is not only toxic for workers with direct contact to it, but also the dumpsites on which e-waste is stored can have severe environmental impacts on the surrounding areas. Many developed countries export the bulk of their e-waste to developing countries, where it is recovered using extremely harmful methods for both human and the environment.

Out of the total e-waste produced world-wide, only about 15% are collected by official take-back schemes. The European Union is one of the few regions in the world with uniform legislation regarding the collection and processing of e-waste. The WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directive took effect in 2003 and was designed to make manufacturers of appliances responsible for their equipment at the end of its life, a system known as extended producer responsibility (EPR).

An Untapped Opportunity

However, e-waste should not only be seen as a problem which more and more developed countries have to face. According to statistics, the intrinsic material value of global e-waste is estimated to be 48 billion euros in 2014. Even though the large part of e-waste constitutes of iron and steel, precious metals such as gold, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, cobalt, and more provide economic incentive for recycling.  In addition to the intrinsic material value, there are more benefits to e-waste recycling, such as job and employment creation.

In addition to these economic benefits, the recycling of electronic waste products also ensures to reduce environmental pollution by conserving virgin resources, whose extraction goes along with severe damages to entire ecosystems.

Situation in GCC Countries

In almost all GCC countries, there is minimal to zero legislation on e-waste, with minor differences between the respective counties. Kuwait as one of the biggest per capita e-waste producers among the GCC nations uses the same landfills for both conventional and e-waste. Bahrain operates only one landfill for the entire country, but there are several recycling initiatives in place, aiming at separating plastics, metals and paper. Still, there is no comprehensive law on e-waste management. Saudi Arabia possesses the biggest total amount of e-waste among the GCC countries. There are private companies, initiatives and Non-Profit-Organizations currently working on e-waste recycling, but there is no regulated system in place.

Oman does not have regulations or facilities to deal with e-waste, but the country has recently stated the realization of a need for it. Qatar has also recognized the need to address the waste management issue, but no concrete actions have been taken. The most advanced momentum regarding e-waste of all GCC countries can be found in the UAE. In some waste management centers, there are facilities where e-waste is classified and sorted out specifically. The UAE government is currently developing regulation and facilities to for sound e-waste recycling.

The Way Forward

As we have seen, in many GCC countries the need for e-waste legislation is widely recognized. E-waste management provides an opportunity and a huge potential in the entire Middle East, primarily due to four reasons. First, e-waste management is a source of employment for both highly skilled and unskilled workers. This could help to transfer employment from the public to the private sector, which is a goal of many Gulf countries. Second, e-waste recycling can also minimize costs, as less landfill space is being used. In Bahrain, the only existing landfill is expected to reach its capacity in the next years, and poses furthermore a health risks for the population as it is close to urban areas.

The most advanced momentum regarding e-waste in the GCC can be found in the UAE.

Third, the intrinsic value of e-waste with its precious metals provide economic incentive for recycling. As reserves for many metals decrease drastically, the economic value of these resources is expected to increase. And fourth, developments in e-waste management provide opportunities for industry and environmental research. Innovative and efficient recycling processes could be developed and transferred to other countries.

In order to fulfill this potential for e-waste management in GCC countries, the first step is to develop a sound regulatory framework in order to ensure private sector participation. Additionally, programs to increase public awareness for waste and in specific e-waste need to be developed, which is necessary for an integrated e-waste management system.

References

Kusch, S. & Hills, C.D. (2017). The Link between e-Waste and GDP—New Insights from Data from the Pan-European Region. Resources 6 (15); doi:10.3390/resources6020015

Baldé, C.P., Wang, F., Kuehr, R. & Huisman, J. (2015). The global e-waste monitor – 2014. United Nations University, IAS – SCYCLE. Bonn, Germany

Morgan, K. (2015). Is there a future for e-waste recycling? Yes, and it’s worth billions.

Cucchiella, F., D’Adamo, I., Lenny Koh, S.C. & Rosa, P. (2015). Recycling of WEEEs: An economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (51); doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.010

Alghazo, J. & Ouda, O. (2016). Electronic Waste Management and security in GCC Countries: A Growing Challenge. Conference Paper.

Debusmann, B. (2015). New regulations are coming up to deal with e-waste.