What is a Nitrogen Generator and Why Should You Buy One?

For many businesses, nitrogen gas is deeply integrated into the workday. Industries ranging from food processing to mining use this resource regularly, and the supply of it is essential to the core of operations. Unfortunately, traditional nitrogen gas acquisition requires the rental, delivery, installation, and removal of high-pressure cylinders. Canisters are inefficient, causing a lapse in production if delivery is late or supply is low. This process is not only more expensive than it needs to be, but it also creates more opportunities for workplace injuries.

Nitrogen generators, on the other hand, offer a better option. If your company is a regular user of nitrogen gas, consider installing your own nitrogen generator to enjoy the extensive benefits they provide.

onsite-nitrogen-generation

What is a Nitrogen Generator?

Before exploring the many advantages of on-site nitrogen generation, it’s imperative to know what a nitrogen generator is and how it works. These machines perform processes called Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) and Membrane Technology, which extract nitrogen from the air and compress it.

Nitrogen generators offer a continuous flow of pure nitrogen right to your production floor and eliminate any need to wait for canister deliveries or remain at the mercy of supplier prices. While the resource provided is essentially the same, the generator produces the nitrogen rather than having it transported in cylinders.

Uses of a Nitrogen Generator

There are many applications for nitrogen gas across a variety of industries. Any industry that currently uses nitrogen canister, cylinder, dewar, or liquid deliveries can benefit from an in-house nitrogen generation system. Depending on what line of business you’re in, a nitrogen gas generator can work seamlessly into your manufacturing process in different ways.

One of the most common industries for nitrogen gas is food and beverage production. Nitrogen helps to preserve food inside its packaging and extend its shelf life. This is doubly important for bulk food products that might be stored for longer periods, as well as foods that don’t include preservatives in their ingredient lists.

The wine industry also benefits from nitrogen, as it helps keep the wine from going bad. In a non-consumable sense, nitrogen also extends the shelf life of things like paint and household solvents and prevents moisture and condensation in electronic part production. Additionally, nitrogen plays an integral role in quality assurance and consistency. On-site generators allow you to perform all of these tasks and more without a third-party supplier.

Why Make the Switch?

While disrupting and changing your current process can seem daunting, owning a nitrogen generator has numerous benefits that far outweigh any reservations you may have. The advantages of a nitrogen generator are widespread and touch on nearly every aspect of your business.

nitrogen-applications

Below are the primary benefits of switching to an in-house nitrogen generator:

1. Improved Safety

Replacing and transporting nitrogen cylinders presents a safety hazard to your team. Nitrogen generators stabilize the gas, so you don’t have to worry about explosions or injuries. In fact, they’re so safe that they can be installed right on the floor of your production room where they’re needed most. There is no risk to your employees’ wellbeing.

2. Unparalleled Reliability

Unlike canisters, cylinders, dewars, and liquid methods, nitrogen generators produce an infinite supply of gas, so you never have to worry about pausing production to wait for a delivery. While local nitrogen deliveries can run out or run late, a generator system keeps up with your demand and works on your schedule.

3. Fewer Wasted Resources

Approximately 10 to 20 percent of a canister’s, cylinder’s, dewar’s or liquid method’s nitrogen gas is left unused. This can lead to higher costs and waste production levels. Generators do not have this issue, so you can rest assured that all of your reserves are being used efficiently.

4. Increased Savings

While canisters, cylinders, dewars, and liquid methods come with expensive rental and delivery fees and restrictive contracts, generators require very little beyond their initial cost. In fact, most companies see a return on investment in under two years.

After the initial investment is recouped, generators cost about one-tenth of the price of canisters, cylinders, dewars, and liquid methods per year. That’s a 90 percent difference in operating costs, which creates a significant surplus for most companies.

5. Customization Options

Canister, cylinders, dewars, and liquid methods are one-size-fits-all, but generators can be tailored to meet your exact requirements. This means that your machine will work at maximum efficiency, producing the precise amount of gas you need to maintain operations.

Bottom Line

Nitrogen generators can revolutionize your company’s production process, lowering your utility costs and improving your efficiency. Without dealing with the hassles of nitrogen cylinder delivery, you can grow your business to new heights.

Anaerobic Digestion of Tannery Wastes

The conventional leather tanning technology is highly polluting as it produces large amounts of organic and chemical pollutants. Wastes generated by tanneries pose a major challenge to the environment. Anaerobic digestion of tannery wastes is an attractive method to recover energy from tannery wastes.

According to conservative estimates, more than 600,000 tons per year of solid waste are generated worldwide by leather industry and approximately 40–50% of the hides are lost to shavings and trimmings. Everyday a huge quantity of solid waste, including trimmings of finished leather, shaving dusts, hair, fleshing, trimming of raw hides and skins, are being produced from the industries. Chromium, sulphur, oils and noxious gas (methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide) are the elements of liquid, gas and solid waste of tannery industries.

Biogas from Tannery Wastes

Anaerobic digestion (or biomethanation) systems are mature and proven processes that have the potential to convert tannery wastes into energy efficiently, and achieve the goals of pollution prevention/reduction, elimination of uncontrolled methane emissions and odour, recovery of biomass energy potential as biogas, production of stabilized residue for use as low grade fertilizer.

Anaerobic digestion of tannery wastes is an attractive method to recover energy from tannery wastes. This method degrades a substantial part of the organic matter contained in the sludge and tannery solid wastes, generating valuable biogas, contributing to alleviate the environmental problem, giving time to set-up more sustainable treatment and disposal routes. Digested solid waste is biologically stabilized and can be reused in agriculture.

Until now, biogas generation from tannery wastewater was considered that the complexity of the waste water stream originating from tanneries in combination with the presence of chroming would result in the poisoning of the process in a high loaded anaerobic reactor.

When the locally available industrial wastewater treatment plant is not provided by anaerobic digester, a large scale digestion can be planned in regions accommodating a big cluster of tanneries, if there is enough waste to make the facility economically attractive.

In this circumstance, an anaerobic co-digestion plant based on sludge and tanneries may be a recommendable option, which reduces the quantity of landfilled waste and recovers its energy potential. It can also incorporate any other domestic, industrial or agricultural wastes. Chrome-free digested tannery sludge also has a definite value as a fertilizer based on its nutrient content.

Potential Applications of Biogas

Biogas produced in anaerobic digesters consists of methane (50%–80%), carbon dioxide (20%–50%), and trace levels of other gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen sulfide.  Biogas can be used for producing electricity and heat, as a natural gas substitute and also a transportation fuel. A combined heat and power plant (CHP) not only generates power but also produces heat for in-house requirements to maintain desired temperature level in the digester during cold season.

CHP systems cover a range of technologies but indicative energy outputs per m3 of biogas are approximately 1.7 kWh electricity and 2.5kWh heat. The combined production of electricity and heat is highly desirable because it displaces non-renewable energy demand elsewhere and therefore reduces the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.

AD Plant at ECCO’s Tannery (Netherlands)

A highly advanced wastewater treatment plant and biogas system became fully operational in 2012 at ECCO’s tannery in the Netherlands. A large percentage of the waste is piped directly into the wastewater plant to be converted into biogas. This biogas digester provides a source of renewable fuel and also helps to dispose of tannery waste materials by converting waste from both the leather-making processes, and the wastewater treatment plant, into biogas. All excess organic material from the hides is also converted into biogas.

This project enables ECCO Tannery to reduce waste and to substitute virtually all of its consumption of non-renewable natural gas with renewable biogas. The aim is to use more than 40% of the total tannery waste and replace up to 60% of the total natural gas consumption with biogas.

Why Businesses Need to Reduce Their Carbon Output?

According to a recent Nielsen study, 81 percent of consumers feel strongly that businesses should be taking measures to reduce their impact on the environment. This passion is shared across generations, and it’s safe to say that businesses that have little regard for their corporate social responsibility are significantly less desirable to consumers.

Despite this, a 2018 survey by Carbon Credentials found that only 10 percent of UK businesses had strategies in place to cut carbon emissions. Of those that did, none had a set science-based target in their carbon reduction plan. We know that climate change will devastate the economy and drastically increase the cost of doing business. That’s not even mentioning how it will impact resource scarcity and the global population as a whole.

At the same time, businesses that take the initiative to reduce their carbon footprint can look forward to many more immediate benefits. Here’s why your business needs to reduce its carbon output and what you can do to champion climate action.

Cost Savings

Naturally, your expenses go down with your resource usage. From using more efficient equipment to streamlining your transportation operations to recycling office supplies, there are countless measures every business can take to make this happen. Within the first month, you’ll have more money to allocate towards growth – instead of utility bills.

Regulatory and Tax Compliance

Year-on-year, laws are passed to penalise businesses that don’t make an effort to reduce their impact on the environment and reward those that do. In the UK, this includes the Climate Change Levy, the EU Emissions Trading System and capital allowances on energy-efficient equipment, among other schemes.

Public Image

A 2015 Nielsen study of 30,000 consumers found that 66 percent of them would pay more for sustainably manufactured products. Among millennials, that portion increases to 77 percent. Gen Z is known to be even more conscious in this regard. The more your business cares, the more your customers will care about your business.

Employee Morale

In a similar light, going green fosters positive feelings from your employees as well. This has many benefits. For one, your staff will be more productive and motivated to achieve if they know they’re working for a good cause. Additionally, turnover will be reduced as employees will be less compelled to leave a work community that cares.

The Bigger Picture

This should go without saying, but reducing your company’s environmental impact has lasting benefits for your community and the economy as a whole. The likelihood of your long-term success and prosperity is far greater if the environment is in better shape.

What You Can Do

The list of measures your business can take to become more environmentally conscious is quite frankly endless. Get started by taking a look at this post on Utility Bidder, an energy supplier comparison website, about some simple ways that businesses can reduce their carbon output. The internet serves as a wealth of information on this topic.

Implementing greener practises is extremely beneficial to your business and more often than not, it is a dead-simple process. Getting started today will help you reap the benefits and reach your business goals sooner.

POME as a Source of Biomethane

During the production of crude palm oil, large amount of waste and by-products are generated. The solid waste streams consist of empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fruit fibers (MF) and palm kernel shells (PKS). Reuse of these waste streams in applications for heat, steam, compost and to lesser extent power generation are practised widely across Southeast Asia.

POME or Palm Oil Mill Effluent is an underutilized liquid waste stream from palm oil mills which is generated during the palm oil extraction/decanting process and often seen as a serious environmental issue but it is a very good source for biomethane production. Therefore, discharge of POME is subject to increasingly stringent regulations in many palm oil-producing nations.

POME-Biogas

Anaerobic Digestion of POME

POME is an attractive feedstock for biomethane production and is abundantly available in all palm oil mills. Hence, it ensures continuous supply of substrates at no or low cost for biogas production, positioning it as a great potential source for biomethane production. (Chin May Ji, 2013).

Palm oil mill effluent is a colloidal suspension containing 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids, which include 2-4% suspended solids. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) generally ranges between 25,000 and 65,714 mg/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ranges between 44,300 and 102,696 mg/L.

Most palm oil mills and refineries have their own treatment systems for POME, which is easily amenable to biodegradation due to its high organic content. The treatment system usually consists of anaerobic and aerobic ponds. (Sulaiman, 2013).

Open pond systems are still commonly applied. Although relatively cheap to install, these system often fail to meet discharge requirements (due to lack of operational control, long retention time, silting and short circuiting issues).

Moreover, the biogas produced during the anaerobic decomposition of POME in open pond systems is not recovered for utilization. The produced gas dissipates into the atmosphere where it causes adverse environment effects (due to the fact that CH4 is a twenty times stronger greenhouse gas then CO2 (Chin May Ji, 2013).

Biogas from POME can be carried out using a number of various technologies ranging in cost and complexity. The closed-tank anaerobic digester system with continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), the methane fermentation system employing special microorganisms and the reversible flow anaerobic baffled reactor (RABR) system are among the technologies offered by technology providers. (Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 2015).

Biogas production largely depends on the method deployed for biomass conversion and capture of the biogas, and can, therefore, approximately range from 5.8 to 12.75 kg of CH4 per cubic meter of POME. Application of enclosed anaerobic digestion will significantly increase the quality of the effluent/ discharge stream as well as the biogas composition, as mentioned in table below.

 Table: Performance comparison between open and closed digester systems

Parameters Open digester system Closed anaerobic digester
COD removal efficiency (%) 81% 97%
HRT (days) 20 10
Methane utilization Released to atmosphere Recoverable
Methane yield (kg CH4/kg COD removed) 0.11 0.2
Methane content (%) 36 55
Solid discharge (g/L) 20 8

*This table has been reproduced from (Alawi Sulaiman, 2007)

A closed anaerobic system is capable of producing and collecting consistently high quality of methane rich biogas from POME. Typical raw biogas composition will be: 50-60 % CH4, 40-50 % CO2, saturated with water and with trace amounts of contaminants (H2S, NH3, volatiles, etc.).

Biomethane Potential in Southeast Asia

The amount of biomethane (defined as methane produced from biomass, with properties close to natural gas) that can be potentially produced from POME (within the Southeast Asian region) exceeds 2.25 billion cubic meter of biomethane (on a yearly basis).

Especially Indonesia and Malaysia, as key producers within the palm oil industry, could generate significant quantities of biomethane. An impression of the biomethane potential of these countries including other feedstock sources is being highlighted below (VIV Asia, 2015).

Indonesia (4.35 billion m3 of biomethane):

  • 25 billion m3 of biomethane from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).
  • 2 billion m3 of bio-methane from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP).
  • 9 billion m3 of bio-methane from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).

Malaysia (3 billion m3 of biomethane):

  • 1 billion m3 of biomethane from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).
  • 2 billion m3 of biomethane from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP).
  • 8 billion m3 of biomethane from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).

The Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance estimates that the potential of conversion of biomass to biomethane is sufficient to replace 25 percent of the natural gas demand by renewable biogas (Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance, 2015).

To sum up, due to the high fraction of organic materials, POME has a large energetic potential. By unlocking the energetic potential of these streams through conversion/ digesting and capture of biomethane, plant owners have the opportunity to combine waste management with a profitable business model.

Co-Authors: H. Dekker and E.H.M. Dirkse (DMT Environmental Technology)

References

Alawi Sulaiman, Z. B. (2007). Biomethane production from pal oil mill effluent (POME) in a semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester. Seminar on Sustainable Palm Biomass initiatives. Japan Society on Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Asia Biogas Group. (2015, 08 15). Retrieved from Asia Biogas : http://www.asiabiogas.com

Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance. (2015). Biogas Opportunities in South East Asia. Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance/ICESN.

Chin May Ji, P. P. (2013). Biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME): Opportunities and challenges from Malysia’s perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 717-726.

Malaysian Palm Oil Board. (2015, 08 26). Biogas capture and CMD project implementation for palm oil mills. Retrieved from Official Portal Of Malaysian Palm Oild Board:

Sulaiman, N. A. (2013). The Oil Palm Wastes in Malaysia. In M. D. Matovic, “Biomass Now – Sustainable Growth and Use”. InTech.

VIV Asia. (2015, 08 26). The international platform from feed to food in Asia. Retrieved from http://www.vivasia.nl

Note: This is the first article in the special series on ‘Sustainable Utilization of POME-based Biomethane’ by Langerak et al of DMT Environmental Technology (Holland)

Dyne Testing and its Usefulness

Dyne Testing is a technology, a method to measure surface wettability. The low surface wettability of polymer-based substrates is the sign of poor adhesion of inks, glues and coatings. Thus, to obtain the optimum amount of adhesive it is necessary to increase the surface energy of the substrate which can be done by surface treatment with either Corona or Plasma. It will result in good wetting of the material over the surface of the substrate and hence, it improves adhesion.

For the optimum adhesion, while printing, gluing, or coating the various substrates, it is necessary to obtain high surface energy which can be obtained by Dyne Testing Markers. The fluid that is present in the Dyne Testing markers is based on ISO 8296 method for measuring the surface energy of polythene film.

When the Dyne Testing Pens are being applied to the surface, the liquid will form a continues film or will form a small trail of droplets. If it is being stretched as a film for at least 3 seconds, the substrate will have a minimum surface energy of that ink value which will be expressed in mN/m (Dynes).

The exact surface energy (Dyne level) can be determined by applying a range of increasing or decreasing values of Dyne test pens thereby taking the steps to improve its condition.

The Dyne Test Pen may lose its accuracy for which there are 3 reasons:

  1. It could get contaminated with the foreign substance
  2. It could evaporate quicker than it is expected to be
  3. And the third reason is ageing, during which chemical reactions take place among the constituents.

The experts have also faced the problem with the ageing of Dyne Testing Equipment. If their hue or color density are almost past their expiration date, it is advisable to replace them as stated by experts. The lower Dyne value states that the value stated on the bottle does not match true surface tension. You must be sure that retains the substrate used for the measurements are to be kept well sealed, free from contamination, and stored under laboratory conditions.

The ideal Dyne Testing Pen should be:

  • easy to handle,
  • perfect for the quick spot checks on the production floor,
  • very easy to read,
  • no subjectivity for this type of test,
  • no wiping off necessary,
  • lasting display of result, and
  • very striking coloring.

Conclusion

The Dyne Testing Kit is based on valve tip applicator and not the magic marker type. The quick test 38 pen is our most popular product amongst all and it is available in a bright red ink. This is the quick test pen which serves to check the surface treatment of all plastic substrates.

It has a shown an effect onto the material such that a stroke of the pens leaves a full line on the material if the material’s surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm. Also, as mentioned above if the materials surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm, the fluid will form small drops on the surface. The fluid applied to the surface will dry within seconds; it does not need to be wiped off anymore.

Applications of Epoxy Resin in Clean Energy Sector

Epoxy resin is a kind of reactive prepolymer and polymer that contains epoxide groups. It is important to note that epoxy resin is different from other polyester resins in terms of curing. Unlike other resins, instead of using a catalyst as a curing agent, it is cured by an agent known as the hardener. It possesses many desirable properties such as high tensile strength, high adhesive strength, high corrosion resistance, and excellent moisture & chemical resistance. It is also resistant to fatigue, has a long shelf life, and has good electrical and insulating properties. The ability of epoxy resins to be used in various combinations and reinforcements makes it the foundation of a plethora of industries, including clean energy systems.

Applications of Epoxy Resins

Because of the versatile properties of epoxy resins, it is used widely in adhesives, potting, encapsulating electronics, and printed circuit boards. It is also used in the form of matrices for composites in the aerospace industries. Epoxy composite laminates are commonly used for repairing both composite as well as steel structures in marine applications.

Due to its high reactivity, epoxy resin is preferred in repairing boats that have been damaged by impact. Its low shrinking properties and ease of fabrication make it well suited for many tooling applications such as metal-shaping molds, vacuum-forming molds, jigs, patterns etc.

Use of Epoxy Resins in Clean Energy

A variety of industries have been actively trying to find a path that’s moving towards a society that puts less load on the the environment and also contributes towards reducing the carbon footprint. The accelerated use of epoxy resins in generating renewable energy has lead to a rise in its production demand. This is why the epoxy resin market is projected to witness a high demand and growth rate by 2022. Here are some of the sectors contributing to the production of clean energy and how they utilize epoxy resin for their functioning:

  • Solar Energy

The harnessing of solar energy dates back to 700 B.C, when people used a magnifying glass to focus the sun’s rays to produce fire. Today solar power is a vigorously developing energy source around the globe. It not only caters to the rising energy requirements but also the need to protect the environment from the exploitation of exhaustible energy resources.

A piece of average solar equipment endures intense environmental conditions such as scorching heat, UV radiations, bitter cold,  pouring rain, hail, storms, and turbulent winds. To withstand such conditions, the sealing and mounting application of epoxy resins increase the environmental tolerance of the solar equipment.

With their high mechanical strength, impressive dimensional stability and excellent adhesion properties, they are used to protect the solar panels from a wide range of temperatures. Epoxies are cheap, less labor-intensive and easy to apply.

  • Wind Energy

The global wind industry has quickly emerged as one of the largest sources of renewable energy around the world. The wind energy in the U.S. alone grew by 9% in 2017 and today is the largest source for generating clean energy in the country. With such a tremendous demand for wind power, the need for fabricating bigger and better wind turbine blades is also rising. The industry is in a dearth of long-lasting blades, that endure the harsh climatic conditions and wear tear and are able to collect more wind energy at a time.

Sealing and mounting application of epoxy resins increase the environmental tolerance of the solar equipment

Epoxy thermosets are used for making the blades more durable because of their high tensile strength and high creep resistance. Mixing of epoxy resins with various toughening agents and using them on the blades have shown positive results towards making the blades corrosion resistant and fatigue-proof.

  • Hydropower

Hydropower is an essential source of renewable and clean energy. As the hydropower industry is developing rapidly, the solution for protecting the hydropower concrete surfaces against low temperatures and lashing water flow has also been looked into.

As a solution to this issue, epoxy mortar, a mixture of epoxy resins, binder, solvent, mineral fillers, and some additives has proven to be the most effective material used for surface protection. Owing to the properties like non-permeability, adhesive strength, anti-erosive nature, and non-abrasiveness, epoxy mortar paste has been used as a repairing paste in the hydropower industry.

Over the last few decades, epoxy resins have contributed immensely in the maintenance and protection of clean energy sources, helping them to become more efficient and productive.

Final Thoughts

While many argue that factors like a relatively high cost when compared to petroleum-based resins and conventional cement-mortar alternatives has affected the epoxy resin market growth, the fact remains that epoxy resin never fails to deliver top-notch and unmatchable results in the areas of application.

Trends in Global Waste to Energy Market

Waste-to-Energy is the use of modern combustion and biochemical technologies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban wastes. These new technologies can reduce the volume of the original waste by 90%, depending upon composition and use of outputs. The main categories of waste-to-energy technologies are physical technologies, which process waste to make it more useful as fuel; thermal technologies, which can yield heat, fuel oil, or syngas from both organic and inorganic wastes; and biological technologies, in which bacterial fermentation is used to digest organic wastes to yield fuel.

WTE_Market

The global market for waste-to-energy technologies was valued at US$6.2bn in 2012 which is  forecasted to increase to US$29.2bn by 2022. While the biological WTE segment is expected to grow more rapidly from US$1.4bn in 2008 to approximately US$2.5bn in 2014, the thermal WTE segment is estimated to constitute the vast bulk of the entire industry’s worth. This segment was valued at US$18.5bn in 2008 and is forecasted to expand to US$23.7bn in 2014.

The global market for waste to energy technologies has shown substantial growth over the last five years, increasing from $4.83 billion in 2006, to $7.08 billion in 2010 with continued market growth through the global economic downturn. Over the coming decade, growth trends are expected to continue, led by expansion in the US, European, Chinese, and Indian markets.

By 2021, based on continued growth in Asian markets combined with the maturation of European waste management regulations and European and US climate mitigation strategies, the annual global market for waste to energy technologies will exceed $27 billion, for all technologies combined.

Asia-Pacific’s waste-to-energy market will post substantial growth by 2015, as more countries view the technology as a sustainable alternative to landfills for disposing waste while generating clean energy. In its new report, Frost & Sullivan said the industry could grow at a compound annual rate of 6.7 percent for thermal waste-to-energy and 9.7 percent for biological waste-to-energy from 2008 to 2015.

The WTE market in Europe is forecasted to expand at an exponential rate and will continue to do so for at least the next 10 years. The continent’s WTE capacity is projected to increase by around 13 million tonnes, with almost 100 new WTE facilities to come online by 2012. In 2008, the WTE market in Europe consisted of approximately 250 players due in large to the use of bulky and expensive centralized WTE facilities, scattered throughout Western Europe.

4 Reasons Why Inflatable Packer is a Must Have

Non-stop operating challenges in the field of the gas, oilfield, and underground mining has led the inflatable technology to become a mainstream go-to solution for those in jobs of high-pressure drilling, borehole measurement, and tunneling. And it is none other than the inflatable packers that have been extensively catering to the niche for over three decades now. The best thing about these tools is that they easily pass through restrictions and they are extremely sturdy to stand all the extremities and challenges of their projects.

With these tools rapidly gaining the ground in almost all parts of boring, sealing and mechanical jobs, it’s probably time to take a look at what makes these testing powerhouses really an unmatched solution in the field of special civil engineering and geotechnical studies. There are a plenty of informative and reliable sources, including http://www.aardvarkpackers.com/products-list/inflatable-packers/ and others that can tell you how these tools work and benefit their users. Another designer and manufacturer is IPI who supply oil, gas, mining and research companies with packers capable of up to 20,000 psi ratings.

What is an Inflatable Packer

As the name suggests, an inflatable packer is a plug equipment that can be extended and used in a wide array of decommissioning projects more specialized in terms of hole temperature and washouts etc. These plugs are both robust and versatile in nature and can be deployed where activities like hydraulic fracturing and high-pressure permeability require an in-depth planning and execution.

It’s the pipe that makes the main body of the packer and its the outside of the pipe that can inflate multiple times its original diameter to offer the space needed for all conventional jobs like coil tubing, pumping injections, tubes, and more.

Types of Inflatable Packers

When you have a clear idea about the job, it will be easy to choose your kind of pick from a wide selection of packers. They are many types, though…

  1. Fixed end packers
  2. Single or sliding end packers available in three styles, non reinforced, partially reinforced or fully reinforced
  3. Inward Inflating Packers ( applications include blow out preventers for mineral drilling rigs for a fraction of the cost of oilfield versions)
  4. Steel fortified
  5. Wire-line packers
  6. Custom packers (metal or other combinations)

Remember, every job needs an inflatable tool that can serve the bespoke purpose.

Uses of Inflatable Packers

As already mentioned earlier, inflatable packers are used in a wide range of energy-optimized fields, including groundwater projects, dewatering, high-pressure mining, contamination, block caving, core drilling, rock blasting and other kinds of stress testing

However, below mentioned is a list of broad range applications where these inflated tools are hugely deployed…

  1. Multi-depth ground consolidation
  2. Unconsolidated material consolidation
  3. Solid rock consolidation
  4. Improvement of mechanical properties
  5. Underground soil injections
  6. Lifting injections
  7. Sealing projects
  8. Injections in foundations
  9. Permeability testing as part of wireline coring
  10. Monitoring wells – isolation of gauges
  11. Hydraulic fracturing for rock stress testing, block caving or rock burst mitigation
  12. Swaging slim line patches to repair well casing

So, now that you know about most of the high-key projects where packers are used, there are certain unique features that make a packer ideal for a job.

  1. Extension capability of the packer’s hose,
  2. High-pressure rating
  3. The interior measurement of the pipe
  4. The exterior measurement of the pipe
  5. Length of the sealing section that complies with the uneven borehole

The real advantage of having an inflated tool with an increased number of features is that it will make sure you can use it in multifaceted projects.

Advantages of inflatable packers

There are four main reasons that make these tools a must-have. They are as follows:

  1. Inflatable packers are reusable

Yes, most of their parts can be used for a great number of times. All the parts from a mandrel, inflation point, rubber element to connectors are exchangeable and their models are available in different lengths.

  1. Material parts are built sturdy

A non-welded packer is made robust and its patented and reinforcing ribs offer a tighter grip in the target areas to withstand challenges and vulnerabilities during and post inflation. What’s more, the packer ensures a uniform inflation between its metal ribs to offer maximum efficiency at disposal operations.

  1. Good use in inconsistent contact pressure

The packer’s metal ribs offer reinforcing anchoring in the end subs. This allows the inflatable tool to optimize its pressure differential holding capacity in varying depths.

  1. Flawless and safe sealing

While the ribs and the high-quality threads of an inflatable packer offer a greater surface preparation, eliminating any need for using crossover sub, welding or epoxy, the larger expansion range of a packer’s valve system provides an extra room for the fluid and the sealing functions, What’s more, all its material tubes and check valves can be cleaned easily when you separate them.

But the benefits of using these tools don’t end just here. There are a tall-list of other advantages too when you buy a packer of this type.

Final Thoughts

In a nutshell, inflatable packers prove extremely efficient where a perfect decommissioning job can add hundreds of thousands of dollars to the ever-flourishing energy industry. Their proven track records make them a must-have for projects like test injections, geological boring, water pressure control and special cases like plugging and abandoning wells just to name a few. The good news is, nowadays these tools are made available just a click away. Just go through the specifications carefully and pick the one that best suits your niche.

Proactive Prevention of Common Hazardous Waste Violations

In 2019, the EPA levied fines totaling  $170,000 against three Southern California-based companies, namely, Coat Product, Inc., International Aerospace Coatings, Inc., and Goodwest Rubber Linings, Inc. These companies allegedly violated the federal Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) that oversees the proper management of hazardous waste.

Hazardous waste regulations compliance is complex, and businesses of all sizes find them significantly stringent to follow and comply with. If found guilty, the organizations are liable to pay huge fines that can financially wipe out small and mid-size organizations. This article can help businesses stay proactive about preventing hazardous waste violations.

hazardous-waste-violations

Types of Hazardous Waste

Hazardous waste is any solid waste that is listed as a known hazardous waste or exhibits any characteristic among ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. A known hazardous waste is categorized into four lists named F, K, P, and U lists.

 The hazardous waste regulations differ based on the quantity of waste generated by your business.

  • Large Quantity Generators – Businesses that monthly generate more than 1000 kg of hazardous waste or more than 100 kg of acute spill residue or soil, or more than 1 kg of acute hazardous waste.
  • Small Quantity Generators – Businesses that monthly generate hazardous waste between 100 kg and 1000 kg.
  • Very Small Quantity Generators – Businesses that monthly generate up to 100 kg of hazardous waste, or up to 100 kg of acute spill residue or soil, or up to 1 kg of acute hazardous waste.

After knowing your class of hazardous waste generators, let’s understand some of the common hazardous waste violations.

Common Hazardous Waste Violations

1. Lack of Proper Labelling

Proper labeling is critical for notifying government waste haulers, safety personnel, and your employees regarding the accumulated chemical, specifically in the event of an emergency and how long it has been accumulating onsite.

2. Improper Disposal

Businesses dispose of hazardous waste by illegally dumping it due to various reasons, including lack of time and efforts, avoid disposal fees, lack of knowledge about what constitutes hazardous waste, or understaffed or untrained workforce with lack of waste management procedures knowledge.

3. Improper or No Determination of the Waste

Many times, the generators fail to properly determine the waste by testing it or knowing its stream that can attract hefty fines.

4. Improper Management of Expired Waste

Expired chemicals can be extremely volatile and considered hazardous waste. These materials can be dangerous as they are no longer in their original containers and can become less stable or have decomposed due to aging. They are subject to hazardous waste generator requirements as well as the regulatory timeframes in which they can be disposed of or stored.

5. No or Inadequate Waste Manifests

Adequate paperwork is also critical when it comes to hazardous waste. After storing and labeling hazardous waste, you, as a generator, are mandated to complete the Hazardous Waste Manifest that outlines the type and quality of waste. Further, you need to mail its copy to the appropriate regulatory agencies such as EPA and DOT (Department of Transportation).

6. No or Inadequate Training for Employees

Inadequate employee training can lead to improper hazardous waste handling procedures that might result in treacherous spills, toxic chemical reactions, and spreading fire. Also, failing to wear protective gear can expose your employees to radioactive materials, fumes, and other hidden risks that can cost their lives. Not following proper updated standards for employee communication and training can result in hefty fines.

7. Lack of Contingency Plan

A generator should have a written Hazardous Waste Contingency Plan that can be implemented immediately during an emergency, including explosions, fires, and sudden unplanned release of hazardous waste. It’s designed to minimize hazards to the environment and human health during emergencies. Failing to have a contingency plan can result in significant fines.

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8. Improper Management of Mercury

Mercury and its products are incredibly toxic and can cause chronic and acute poisoning and severe illness if mishandled. Improper management of mercury attracts hefty fines as it can lead to spills and evaporation, risking human lives and the environment.

9. Open Containers

Not closing the containers containing hazardous waste is among the common violations and can be a cause of accidents and physical injuries that can be avoided with a few precautions.

10. No or Infrequent Weekly Inspections

All hazardous waste generators are compelled to perform a weekly inspection of their hazardous waste container storage areas. It’s also a common violation that can be easily avoided by the implementation of standard procedures and compliance maintenance.

How to Prevent Hazardous Waste Violations

Hazardous waste violations and the associated hefty fines can be avoided by implementing standard procedures and giving due diligence during generating, storing, transporting, and disposing of hazardous waste.

  • Follow rigorous labeling of containers with hazardous waste including name and address of your facility, accumulation start date, source or identity of waste, characteristic of waste, mentioning what makes it hazardous, and physical state of the waste.
  • Keep in mind proper licensing and know your waste generator requirements.
  • Understand the “cradle to grave” requirements by RCRA.
  • Comply with hazardous waste management training requirements by providing on-the-job as well as classroom training to your employees on hazardous waste management, storage, and disposal procedures.
  • Contract with a reputed and properly licensed hazardous waste company that will provide proof of proper disposal along with adequate documentation. Closed top mini frac tanks can be ideal for hazardous waste disposal as they ensure safe transportation of chemicals and other volatile substances.
  • Properly determine your waste streams with the Hazardous Waste Identification process.
    • Check if it is solid waste.
    • Check if it’s particularly excluded from RCRA.
    • Check if it’s listed as hazardous waste.
    • Check if it exhibits hazardous waste characteristics.
  • Conduct regular audits. Keep track of expired chemicals to dispose of them properly. Have a centralized purchasing and inventory process for effective organization and inventory management of chemicals.
  • Fill out and double-check the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest correctly.
  • Create an adequate contingency plan based on your company’s waste generator status. The plan should include contact information of emergency coordinator, emergency equipment location, emergency phone numbers, and more.
  • Conduct regular audits and weekly inspections of the storage area and containers and keep them closed at all times. Maintain a log record. Ensure that the storage area is free from debris and other materials, container tops are free from spillage, containers are in good condition and free from spills and leaks, and the ground is clean and dry. Make sure that the waste is stored in compatible containers.

Stay in the Know About EPA Regulations

Besides knowing the common hazardous waste violations and how to avoid them, here are some of the critical EPA laws and regulations you should know if you are dealing with hazardous waste.

  • Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) – The act is aimed to protect human health and the environment from waste disposal hazards.
  • Clean Air Act (CAA) – Its goal is to enhance and protect the country’s air quality.
  • Clean Water Act (CWA) – It intends to prevent, reduce, and eliminate pollution in groundwater and navigable waters.
  • Toxic Substance Control Act (TCSA) – It aims to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals by restricting their manufacture, processing, and use.

Hazardous waste violations are taken extremely seriously, and the associated fines can spell financial doom for small and mid-sized companies. However, well-thought procedures, a disciplined, proactive approach, and routine inspections can help you stay compliant.

Air Pollution and its Invisible Danger – What You Need to Know

If you’ve been observing the ongoing and high-profile protests from Extinction Rebellion over the course of the last few years, you’ll be aware that air pollution offers a significant threat to the human population.

This is supported by the statistics, which have revealed that almost a quarter of the people in the UK have been exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution with potentially devastating health consequences.

More specifically, a study by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) found that about 15 million in the UK live in areas where the average levels of the toxic particle PM2.5 exceeds the World Health Foundation’s guidelines. But what do you need to know about this invisible danger?

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What is Air Pollution and How is it Caused?

In simple terms, air pollution is defined as the presence of substances in the natural atmosphere that may be harmful to the health of humans and other living beings.

Air pollution may also cause long standing damage to the climate or individual materials, while there are different types of air pollutants including particulates, gases and biological molecules.

Historically, the history of air pollution can be traced back to the Industrial Revolution, as developed nations such as the UK began to leverage fossil fuels such as coal to drive economic growth and expansion.

As a result of this, large and industrialised nations have produced high levels of smoke and sulphur dioxide for a range of domestic and industrial purposes, creating an omni-present threat to clean air and one that has worsened incrementally over time.

Substances such as nitrogen oxide are also impactful in this regard, with this produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in their air during combustion.

The threat of this has become increasingly prominent in highly congested areas packed with high motor vehicle traffic, creating a huge and growing pollution challenge.

Health Impact of Pollution and the Reaction of Governments

According to the WHO, air pollution contributes to an estimated 4.2 million premature deaths globally, with conditions such as heart disease, stroke, acute respiratory infections and lung cancer.

Interestingly, worldwide ambient air pollution accounts for 29% of all deaths and disease that involve lung cancer, along with 25% of similar cases related to ischaemic heart disease.

Incredibly, air pollution also contributes to 43% of all deaths and diseases that arise from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which causes significant breathing difficulties and long-term inflammation within the lungs.

china-air-pollution

Fortunately, countries across the globe are beginning to take steps to tackle air pollution, even serial offenders like China. Here, the government is taking direct action to clean up smog-choked skies from years of relentless industrial expansion, primarily by investing $83.4 billion in the renewable energy sector in 2019.

Nations like China are also drawing on innovation and technological advancement, with firms such as ERG Air Pollution Control providing various tools and measures to help tackle air pollution directly.

This includes everything from industrial gas cleaning services to comprehensive air pollution control systems, which help to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change without compromising on economic growth.