What is the Fourth Industrial Revolution?

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, also called Industry 4.0, is the rapidly growing automation of industrial and traditional practices with modern intelligent technologies. Like all industrial revolutions, the Fourth could raise incomes and improve the quality of life around the world. You can now make taxi or flight bookings, do shopping, and pay for online services remotely.

What Is the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Definition of Industrial Revolution

The term “Industry 4.0” appeared in 2011 in Germany. It denoted smart factories, where digital technologies were being introduced. The term went into mass use with the president of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Klaus Schwab, author of the book “Technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution”. It is a thorough guide about transformational processes for all who analyze the theory of the matter.

Based on this work, many students have tried to investigate the origins and problems of Industry 4.0 in their essays. However, the background may be tricky for those who are not proficient in this field. Sometimes it might be supportive to get additional expert help in exploring the nuances of the topic.

The experts contributed much to exploring industrial revolution essay topics. As a result, a qualitative and concise industrial revolution essay from knowledgeable writers has become an excellent opportunity to learn more about this phenomenon. Moreover, it allows one to navigate the topic without delving deeply into research.

The essence of Industry 4.0 is that the physical world today merges with the virtual. It results in the creation of the new mixed complexes. Later they will be combined into one digital system. “Smart” plants and robotic production form the future transformed industry. Industry 4.0 means the growing automation of all production processes and stages. It starts from the product‘s digital design to the remote setup of equipment at the factory to manufacture this “smart” product.

Signs of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

There are several signs that the future is nearer than we think.

1. Social networks

You will not surprise anyone with an account on social networks or a personal website. Half of humanity is now actively present online. Taking into account the digital development, in 5 years this percentage will increase dramatically.

2. The Universe in your pocket

The smartphone is a unique supercomputer that is always with you. Connected to the Internet, you can link with any spot in the world. In addition, you can make purchases and dedicate time to education or entertainment. And all this without even leaving home.

4. Smart home

The daily routine is becoming increasingly automated. You can run some dishwashers from a smartphone or run robot vacuum cleaners online. This is just the beginning of transformations.

Myths about Smart Homes

4. Digital currency

The financial system is rapidly developing. The latest virtual money technologies are replacing the bank. In addition to bitcoin, more and more digital coins appear on cryptocurrency exchanges.

Impact on Business

The material world has been combined with the virtual and generates new methods and career models. Manufacturers earn more and invest in improving the quality of products and services. Industry 4.0 is a new production approach. It is based on the active introduction of information technology in the industry. Besides, it involves business process automation and the spread of artificial intelligence.

Businesses that are used to making the same outdated things have to change. Implementing modern industrial revolution principles allows them to get several benefits that were not available in traditional past models. For example, companies can now take an individual approach and personalize orders according to customers‘ preferences. Old factories are becoming “smart” and are starting to make unique products.

robotics in sustainable manufacturing

Not all companies with a long history will survive this wave of digital transformation. But those who can transform will benefit twice as much. Consumers are loyal to the brands they respect and are willing to stay with them if they switch to an individual format.

Conclusion

The revolutions modify production and the whole people’s life. Industry 4.0 has the potential to change the economy and human relationships, and even what it means to be human. After all, it involves the widespread introduction of artificial intelligence, robotization, the Internet of things, bio-, and neurotechnologies. The realization of this vision will be the main task and great responsibility for the next 50 years.

Why Businesses Need to Reduce Their Carbon Output?

According to a recent Nielsen study, 81 percent of consumers feel strongly that businesses should be taking measures to reduce their impact on the environment. This passion is shared across generations, and it’s safe to say that businesses that have little regard for their corporate social responsibility are significantly less desirable to consumers.

Despite this, a 2018 survey by Carbon Credentials found that only 10 percent of UK businesses had strategies in place to cut carbon emissions. Of those that did, none had a set science-based target in their carbon reduction plan. We know that climate change will devastate the economy and drastically increase the cost of doing business. That’s not even mentioning how it will impact resource scarcity and the global population as a whole.

At the same time, businesses that take the initiative to reduce their carbon footprint can look forward to many more immediate benefits. Here’s why your business needs to reduce its carbon output and what you can do to highlight climate action in the sustainability reports.

Cost Savings

Naturally, your expenses go down with your resource usage. From using more efficient equipment to streamlining your transportation operations to recycling office supplies, there are countless measures every business can take to make this happen. Within the first month, you’ll have more money to allocate towards growth – instead of utility bills.

Regulatory and Tax Compliance

Year-on-year, laws are passed to penalise businesses that don’t make an effort to reduce their impact on the environment and reward those that do. In the UK, this includes the Climate Change Levy, the EU Emissions Trading System and capital allowances on energy-efficient equipment, among other schemes.

Public Image

A 2015 Nielsen study of 30,000 consumers found that 66 percent of them would pay more for sustainably manufactured products. Among millennials, that portion increases to 77 percent. Gen Z is known to be even more conscious in this regard. The more your business cares, the more your customers will care about your business.

Employee Morale

In a similar light, going green fosters positive feelings from your employees as well. This has many benefits. For one, your staff will be more productive and motivated to achieve if they know they’re working for a good cause. Additionally, turnover will be reduced as employees will be less compelled to leave a work community that cares.

The Bigger Picture

This should go without saying, but reducing your company’s environmental impact has lasting benefits for your community and the economy as a whole. The likelihood of your long-term success and prosperity is far greater if the environment is in better shape.

What You Can Do

The list of measures your business can take to become more environmentally conscious is quite frankly endless. Get started by taking a look at this post on Utility Bidder, an energy supplier comparison website, about some simple ways that businesses can reduce their carbon output. The internet serves as a wealth of information on this topic.

Implementing greener practises is extremely beneficial to your business and more often than not, it is a dead-simple process. Getting started today will help you reap the benefits and reach your business goals sooner.

What are the Job Responsibilities of a Firefighter?

A firefighter is an occupation that is as old as civilization itself. We will give you a general overview of the firefighting profession, including what duties are expected from each type of firefighter. Along with useful links to resources related to this career, you’ll also find some helpful websites where you can learn more about different aspects of the job. But if you want to know how to become a fire fighter and go into the job, we are describing below some responsibilities that you need to be aware of.

Responsibilities Of A Fire Fighter

1. Part-time Firefighters

One of the primary differences between full-time and part-time firefighters is that part-time firefighters are only expected to work a few hours a week. While it might be difficult for some people to apply for a job that pays by the hour, it’s important that you can balance your life with being able to dedicate enough time to your family, friends, and school.

2. Fire Chiefs

The fire chief is responsible for hiring the firefighters (including part-time ones), evaluating performance (including physical fitness), assigning different tasks such as training or rescue to each shift, scheduling shifts, and rotating shifts.

3. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs)

EMTs are people who go to the fire scene with a group of firefighters and perform medical procedures that help to save lives. They provide medical care and transport patients to a hospital if necessary. EMTs also care for fire victims until the ambulance arrives and give emergency treatment before transporting the victim to a hospital.

4. Fire Marshals

Fire Marshals are responsible for ensuring all safety equipment is working and organized properly before, during, and after the fire. Another responsibility of fire marshals is coordinating the efforts of fire departments from other cities during an out-of-state emergency or disaster.

5. First-Line Supervisors (FLS)

The FLS is the first person who answers a phone when there is a fire emergency. She tests the alarm system and signals the department to respond if it works well. They are responsible for making sure alarms are working, their equipment is ready to use, and all members know how to use that equipment. They must be able to answer questions about how to use the equipment and why it was used when sending out firefighters in an emergency.

Conclusion

Firefighting is a challenging job, with both safety and health risks. You can learn more about the firefighting profession through suitable sites.

POME as a Source of Biomethane

During the production of crude palm oil, large amount of waste and by-products are generated. The solid waste streams consist of empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fruit fibers (MF) and palm kernel shells (PKS). Reuse of these waste streams in applications for heat, steam, compost and to lesser extent power generation are practised widely across Southeast Asia.

POME or Palm Oil Mill Effluent is an underutilized liquid waste stream from palm oil mills which is generated during the palm oil extraction/decanting process and often seen as a serious environmental issue but it is a very good source for biomethane production. Therefore, discharge of POME is subject to increasingly stringent regulations in many palm oil-producing nations.

POME-Biogas

Anaerobic Digestion of POME

POME is an attractive feedstock for biomethane production and is abundantly available in all palm oil mills. Hence, it ensures continuous supply of substrates at no or low cost for biogas production, positioning it as a great potential source for biomethane production. (Chin May Ji, 2013).

Palm oil mill effluent is a colloidal suspension containing 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids, which include 2-4% suspended solids. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) generally ranges between 25,000 and 65,714 mg/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ranges between 44,300 and 102,696 mg/L.

Most palm oil mills and refineries have their own treatment systems for POME, which is easily amenable to biodegradation due to its high organic content. The treatment system usually consists of anaerobic and aerobic ponds. (Sulaiman, 2013).

Open pond systems are still commonly applied. Although relatively cheap to install, these system often fail to meet discharge requirements (due to lack of operational control, long retention time, silting and short circuiting issues).

Moreover, the biogas produced during the anaerobic decomposition of POME in open pond systems is not recovered for utilization. The produced gas dissipates into the atmosphere where it causes adverse environment effects (due to the fact that CH4 is a twenty times stronger greenhouse gas then CO2 (Chin May Ji, 2013).

Biogas from POME can be carried out using a number of various technologies ranging in cost and complexity. The closed-tank anaerobic digester system with continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), the methane fermentation system employing special microorganisms and the reversible flow anaerobic baffled reactor (RABR) system are among the technologies offered by technology providers. (Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 2015).

Biogas production largely depends on the method deployed for biomass conversion and capture of the biogas, and can, therefore, approximately range from 5.8 to 12.75 kg of CH4 per cubic meter of POME. Application of enclosed anaerobic digestion will significantly increase the quality of the effluent/ discharge stream as well as the biogas composition, as mentioned in table below.

 Table: Performance comparison between open and closed digester systems

Parameters Open digester system Closed anaerobic digester
COD removal efficiency (%) 81% 97%
HRT (days) 20 10
Methane utilization Released to atmosphere Recoverable
Methane yield (kg CH4/kg COD removed) 0.11 0.2
Methane content (%) 36 55
Solid discharge (g/L) 20 8

*This table has been reproduced from (Alawi Sulaiman, 2007)

A closed anaerobic system is capable of producing and collecting consistently high quality of methane rich biogas from POME. Typical raw biogas composition will be: 50-60 % CH4, 40-50 % CO2, saturated with water and with trace amounts of contaminants (H2S, NH3, volatiles, etc.).

Biomethane Potential in Southeast Asia

The amount of biomethane (defined as methane produced from biomass, with properties close to natural gas) that can be potentially produced from POME (within the Southeast Asian region) exceeds 2.25 billion cubic meter of biomethane (on a yearly basis).

Especially Indonesia and Malaysia, as key producers within the palm oil industry, could generate significant quantities of biomethane. An impression of the biomethane potential of these countries including other feedstock sources is being highlighted below (VIV Asia, 2015).

Indonesia (4.35 billion m3 of biomethane):

  • 25 billion m3 of biomethane from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).
  • 2 billion m3 of bio-methane from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP).
  • 9 billion m3 of bio-methane from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).

Malaysia (3 billion m3 of biomethane):

  • 1 billion m3 of biomethane from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).
  • 2 billion m3 of biomethane from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP).
  • 8 billion m3 of biomethane from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).

The Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance estimates that the potential of conversion of biomass to biomethane is sufficient to replace 25 percent of the natural gas demand by renewable biogas (Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance, 2015).

To sum up, due to the high fraction of organic materials, POME has a large energetic potential. By unlocking the energetic potential of these streams through conversion/ digesting and capture of biomethane, plant owners have the opportunity to combine waste management with a profitable business model.

Co-Authors: H. Dekker and E.H.M. Dirkse (DMT Environmental Technology)

References

Alawi Sulaiman, Z. B. (2007). Biomethane production from pal oil mill effluent (POME) in a semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester. Seminar on Sustainable Palm Biomass initiatives. Japan Society on Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Asia Biogas Group. (2015, 08 15). Retrieved from Asia Biogas : http://www.asiabiogas.com

Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance. (2015). Biogas Opportunities in South East Asia. Asian Pacific Biogas Alliance/ICESN.

Chin May Ji, P. P. (2013). Biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME): Opportunities and challenges from Malysia’s perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 717-726.

Malaysian Palm Oil Board. (2015, 08 26). Biogas capture and CMD project implementation for palm oil mills. Retrieved from Official Portal Of Malaysian Palm Oild Board:

Sulaiman, N. A. (2013). The Oil Palm Wastes in Malaysia. In M. D. Matovic, “Biomass Now – Sustainable Growth and Use”. InTech.

VIV Asia. (2015, 08 26). The international platform from feed to food in Asia. Retrieved from http://www.vivasia.nl

Note: This is the first article in the special series on ‘Sustainable Utilization of POME-based Biomethane’ by Langerak et al of DMT Environmental Technology (Holland)

What Constitutes Hazardous Waste?

Hazardous waste is any waste that poses significant health and environmental risks. This waste comes from various sources, including commercial processes and household activities. Examples of waste generated commercially include painting wastes and cleaning solvents. In homes, common types include batteries, fluorescent lamps, and computer monitors.

what is hazardous waste

Characterization of Hazardous Waste

The EPA lists four characteristics that waste must meet to be deemed hazardous.

1. Ignitability

Waste that falls in this category includes liquids whose flashpoints are less than sixty degrees, flammable solids, combustible oxidizers, and compressed gasses. This group of wastes falls under the waste code D001, including petroleum parts washer solvents and waste kerosene.

2. Corrosivity

Corrosive wastes are the aqueous types with a pH up to 2, and for liquids that can corrode steel, only those with a pH of atleast 12.5 fall under this category. Examples include rust removers and caustic tank waste.

3. Reactivity

Wastes that fall under this category are volatile, react with water, and may release fumes. These wastes can also explode when heated and even when left undisturbed. Examples include metallic sodium and cyanide plating

4. Toxicity

Toxic wastes pose a threat because of their harmful nature when consumed. They can also seep through the soil and contaminate groundwater. To be deemed toxic, this waste must undergo testing under the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Examples of poisonous waste include oily and painting waste.

Importance of Managing Hazardous Waste in the Oil and Gas Sector

Environmental threats are one of the top risks posed by oil and gas companies due to their operations. Other than greenhouse gas emissions, this industry is responsible for producing hazardous waste.

disposal of contaminated soil

For this reason, these companies must find ways of appropriately managing such waste. Remember, hazardous waste poses health, economic, environmental, and social threats. And while contamination can make waste management a challenge, there are several management schemes that oil and gas companies can undertake.

These include:

  • Companies can source raw materials that generate less waste. At the beginning of the lifecycle, addressing waste generation reduces pollution, saves costs, and promotes resource efficiency.
  • This industry can extend the life cycle of items by reusing them by utilizing waste oil to build roads.
  • Companies can convert waste products such as chemical containers into usable items.
  • This process may involve detoxifying and neutralizing hazardous waste through thermal analysis and physical filtration.

Household Hazardous Waste Management

Household hazardous waste poses a similar threat to the environment and humans. Improper disposal, such as draining into storm sewers or combining with everyday trash, can result in pollution and health problems.

household hazardous wastes

We recommend practicing proper household waste management. You can do this by:

  • Checking and following instructions on products that release hazardous waste. Take note of the usage, storage and disposal guidelines to reduce the risk of fire and other accidents
  • Keeping chemicals in their original packaging and never taking out their labels
  • Not mixing chemicals as some are ignitable. Also, doing so contaminates the containers rendering them unsuitable for recycling
  • Checking with the state or local waste agency on existing management guidelines for hazardous waste. If your neighborhood lacks a designated waste collection site or day, consider talking to your local professional trash collectors for safe disposal

Conclusion

If your business or home generates hazardous waste, it is imperative to understand the level of threat they pose, whether they are toxic or corrosive. More importantly, it would be best to find correct waste management schemes to reduce how much waste you generate, conserve energy and other resources plus ensure safe waste disposal.

With the world facing a climate crisis, secure management of hazardous waste can go a long way in protecting non-renewable resources and ensuring that the environment is habitable for future generations.

IT Asset Management and How It Can Help The Environment

Did you know that the IT industry is one of the world’s largest consumers of energy? In fact, it’s responsible for up to 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions. That’s why it’s important for organizations to adopt effective IT asset management practices. By doing so, they can not only save money and reduce their carbon footprint but also improve their overall efficiency and security. Here are just a few ways that IT asset management can help protect the environment:

How IT asset management can help the environment

1. Automated tracking of IT assets

One of the most important functions of IT asset management is tracking and managing inventory. This helps organizations avoid over-purchasing or under-utilizing assets, both of which can lead to wasted resources. Automated tracking also makes it easier to identify when an asset needs to be replaced or upgraded so that these changes can be made in a timely and efficient manner.

2. Improved data centre efficiency

Data centres are some of the most energy-intensive facilities in the world. As such, they present a major opportunity for organizations to reduce their carbon footprint through improved efficiency. IT asset management can help by providing greater visibility into how data centre resources are being used. This information can then be used to make adjustments that lead to reduced energy consumption.

3. Optimized server utilization

Under-utilized servers are a major source of wasted energy in many organizations. According to IT asset management provider Greenbox Australia, ITAM can help by providing insights into which servers are being used most heavily and which ones could be taken offline or downsized. This information can then be used to make changes that result in significant energy savings.

4. Reduced e-waste

E-waste is a major environmental problem, as it contains harmful toxins that can leach into the ground and contaminate soil and water supplies. IT asset management can help reduce e-waste by ensuring that assets are properly decommissioned when they reach the end of their useful life. This ensures that they are properly recycled or disposed of, rather than simply being thrown away.

5. Increased recycling

Recycling is one of the most effective ways to reduce the environmental impact of IT assets. IT asset management can help by identifying which assets can be reused or repurposed, rather than being sent to landfills. This information can then be used to make changes that result in increased recycling rates.

6. Improved sustainability

Sustainability is an important consideration for any organization, and IT asset management can play a role in this. By providing visibility into the environmental impact of IT assets, it can help organizations to identify areas where they can make changes that lead to improved sustainability.

e-waste crisis in united kingdom

7. Enhanced security

Security is another important consideration for any organization, and IT asset management can help to improve it. By ensuring that all assets are properly tracked and accounted for, it can help to reduce the risk of theft or loss. This information can then be used to make changes that result in enhanced security.

8. Reduced costs

IT asset management can also lead to reduced costs for organizations. This is because it can help to avoid over-purchasing of assets, as well as reduce the need for replacement or repairs. In addition, it can also help to improve efficiency and reduce waste, both of which can lead to cost savings.

Conclusion

IT asset management is a critical tool for organizations that want to save money and protect the environment. By adopting best practices, they can achieve significant reductions in their energy consumption and carbon footprint.

Dyne Testing and its Usefulness

Dyne Testing is a technology, a method to measure surface wettability. The low surface wettability of polymer-based substrates is the sign of poor adhesion of inks, glues and coatings. Thus, to obtain the optimum amount of adhesive it is necessary to increase the surface energy of the substrate which can be done by surface treatment with either Corona or Plasma. It will result in good wetting of the material over the surface of the substrate and hence, it improves adhesion.

For the optimum adhesion, while printing, gluing, or coating the various substrates, it is necessary to obtain high surface energy which can be obtained by Dyne Testing Markers. The fluid that is present in the Dyne Testing markers is based on ISO 8296 method for measuring the surface energy of polythene film.

When the Dyne Testing Pens are being applied to the surface, the liquid will form a continues film or will form a small trail of droplets. If it is being stretched as a film for at least 3 seconds, the substrate will have a minimum surface energy of that ink value which will be expressed in mN/m (Dynes).

The exact surface energy (Dyne level) can be determined by applying a range of increasing or decreasing values of Dyne test pens thereby taking the steps to improve its condition.

The Dyne Test Pen may lose its accuracy for which there are 3 reasons:

  1. It could get contaminated with the foreign substance
  2. It could evaporate quicker than it is expected to be
  3. And the third reason is ageing, during which chemical reactions take place among the constituents.

The experts have also faced the problem with the ageing of Dyne Testing Equipment. If their hue or color density are almost past their expiration date, it is advisable to replace them as stated by experts. The lower Dyne value states that the value stated on the bottle does not match true surface tension. You must be sure that retains the substrate used for the measurements are to be kept well sealed, free from contamination, and stored under laboratory conditions.

The ideal Dyne Testing Pen should be:

  • easy to handle,
  • perfect for the quick spot checks on the production floor,
  • very easy to read,
  • no subjectivity for this type of test,
  • no wiping off necessary,
  • lasting display of result, and
  • very striking coloring.

Conclusion

The Dyne Testing Kit is based on valve tip applicator and not the magic marker type. The quick test 38 pen is our most popular product amongst all and it is available in a bright red ink. This is the quick test pen which serves to check the surface treatment of all plastic substrates.

It has a shown an effect onto the material such that a stroke of the pens leaves a full line on the material if the material’s surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm. Also, as mentioned above if the materials surface energy is below 38 Dynes/cm, the fluid will form small drops on the surface. The fluid applied to the surface will dry within seconds; it does not need to be wiped off anymore.

10 Things You Didn’t Know About the Aerospace Industry

The aerospace industry is one of the most fascinating and innovative industries in the world. What started as a small niche market has grown into a multi-billion dollar industry that touches virtually every aspect of our lives.

Here are 10 things you may not have known about this amazing industry!

Things to Know About the Aerospace Industry

1. The first powered flight was accomplished by the Wright brothers in 1903

In 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright became the first humans to achieve powered flight in their heavier-than-air machine, the Wright Flyer. This event is widely regarded as the beginning of the aerospace industry.

2. The aerospace industry employs over 1 million people in the United States alone

Aerospace is a booming industry, providing jobs for millions of people worldwide. There are countless opportunities in several branches of this industry, from manufacturing and engineering to marketing and sales.

3. The aerospace industry develops some of the most important technologies of our time

Aerospace technology has led to many important inventions and advances in other fields, such as medicine, transportation, and even home appliances. For example, MRI machines and guidance systems used in surgery were first developed for the aerospace industry.

4. Military Partners

The aerospace industry has a long history of collaboration with the military, resulting in many technological advances that have been used in both civilian and military applications. Such tech includes GPS systems, night vision technology, and even the internet.

5. The aerospace industry is a major contributor to the economy

The aerospace industry is truly a global enterprise, with companies and facilities located all around the world. The global aerospace industry was worth an estimated $838 billion in 2015, and is projected to grow to $945 billion by 2025. This growth is driven by increasing demand for air travel, new commercial aircraft, and rising global incomes.

The aerospace industry is a major contributor to the global economy

The aerospace industry is responsible for billions of dollars in economic output each year, and is a major contributor to global GDP. In fact, it is often referred to as one of the “four pillars” of the global economy.

Aerospace companies are also some of the biggest spenders on research and development, making significant contributions to the advancement of science and technology.

6. The aerospace industry is constantly evolving

The aerospace industry is constantly changing and growing, as new technologies are developed and new applications are found for existing technologies. This makes it an exciting and challenging field to work in, with plenty of opportunities for innovation.

7. The Space Shuttle and the International Space Station

The aerospace industry has been responsible for some of the most impressive and iconic structures ever built. The Space Shuttle, for example, is an amazing feat of engineering, while the International Space Station is a remarkable example of international cooperation.

8. Career Opportunities

The aerospace industry offers a wide range of career opportunities, from engineering to marketing to sales.

Strategies To Improve Aerospace Waste Management

Here are just a few examples of the types of careers that are available in the aerospace industry:

  • Aerospace engineer-Designs and tests aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and satellites
  • Aeronautical engineer-Designs and tests aircraft
  • Aerospace technician-Assembles and tests aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and satellites
  • Aircraft mechanic-Maintains and repairs aircraft
  • Flight attendant-Provides customer service and oversees safety on board an aircraft
  • Pilot-Operates an aircraft
  • Air traffic controller-Directs aircraft traffic

9. The aerospace industry is heavily regulated

The aerospace industry is subject to stringent regulation, both from national governments and international organizations. This is necessary to ensure the safety of passengers and crew, as well as to protect the environment. Regulations can be complex and can change rapidly, so those working in the aerospace industry need to be aware of them and comply with them.

10. The future of the aerospace industry is bright

The aerospace industry is constantly evolving, with new technologies and applications being developed all the time. This means that there are plenty of opportunities for career growth and advancement in this field. Needless to say, the future of the aerospace industry is looking very bright.

Conclusion

The aerospace industry is a fascinating and important sector of the global economy, with a rich history and a bright future. Those working in this field can expect to be challenged and rewarded by a career in aerospace.

Thanks for reading!

Applications of Epoxy Resin in Clean Energy Sector

Epoxy resin is a kind of reactive prepolymer and polymer that contains epoxide groups. It is important to note that epoxy resin is different from other polyester resins in terms of curing. Unlike other resins, instead of using a catalyst as a curing agent, it is cured by an agent known as the hardener. It possesses many desirable properties such as high tensile strength, high adhesive strength, high corrosion resistance, and excellent moisture & chemical resistance. It is also resistant to fatigue, has a long shelf life, and has good electrical and insulating properties. The ability of epoxy resins to be used in various combinations and reinforcements makes it the foundation of a plethora of industries, including clean energy systems.

Applications of Epoxy Resins

Because of the versatile properties of epoxy resins, it is used widely in adhesives, potting, encapsulating electronics, and printed circuit boards. It is also used in the form of matrices for composites in the aerospace industries. Epoxy composite laminates are commonly used for repairing both composite as well as steel structures in marine applications.

Due to its high reactivity, epoxy resin is preferred in repairing boats that have been damaged by impact. Its low shrinking properties and ease of fabrication make it well suited for many tooling applications such as metal-shaping molds, vacuum-forming molds, jigs, patterns etc.

Use of Epoxy Resins in Clean Energy

A variety of industries have been actively trying to find a path that’s moving towards a society that puts less load on the the environment and also contributes towards reducing the carbon footprint. The accelerated use of epoxy resins in generating renewable energy has lead to a rise in its production demand. This is why the epoxy resin market is projected to witness a high demand and growth rate by 2022. Here are some of the sectors contributing to the production of clean energy and how they utilize epoxy resin for their functioning:

  • Solar Energy

The harnessing of solar energy dates back to 700 B.C, when people used a magnifying glass to focus the sun’s rays to produce fire. Today solar power is a vigorously developing energy source around the globe. It not only caters to the rising energy requirements but also the need to protect the environment from the exploitation of exhaustible energy resources.

A piece of average solar equipment endures intense environmental conditions such as scorching heat, UV radiations, bitter cold,  pouring rain, hail, storms, and turbulent winds. To withstand such conditions, the sealing and mounting application of epoxy resins increase the environmental tolerance of the solar equipment.

With their high mechanical strength, impressive dimensional stability and excellent adhesion properties, they are used to protect the solar panels from a wide range of temperatures. Epoxies are cheap, less labor-intensive and easy to apply.

  • Wind Energy

The global wind industry has quickly emerged as one of the largest sources of renewable energy around the world. The wind energy in the U.S. alone grew by 9% in 2017 and today is the largest source for generating clean energy in the country. With such a tremendous demand for wind power, the need for fabricating bigger and better wind turbine blades is also rising. The industry is in a dearth of long-lasting blades, that endure the harsh climatic conditions and wear tear and are able to collect more wind energy at a time.

Sealing and mounting application of epoxy resins increase the environmental tolerance of the solar equipment

Epoxy thermosets are used for making the blades more durable because of their high tensile strength and high creep resistance. Mixing of epoxy resins with various toughening agents and using them on the blades have shown positive results towards making the blades corrosion resistant and fatigue-proof.

  • Hydropower

Hydropower is an essential source of renewable and clean energy. As the hydropower industry is developing rapidly, the solution for protecting the hydropower concrete surfaces against low temperatures and lashing water flow has also been looked into.

As a solution to this issue, epoxy mortar, a mixture of epoxy resins, binder, solvent, mineral fillers, and some additives has proven to be the most effective material used for surface protection. Owing to the properties like non-permeability, adhesive strength, anti-erosive nature, and non-abrasiveness, epoxy mortar paste has been used as a repairing paste in the hydropower industry.

Over the last few decades, epoxy resins have contributed immensely in the maintenance and protection of clean energy sources, helping them to become more efficient and productive.

Final Thoughts

While many argue that factors like a relatively high cost when compared to petroleum-based resins and conventional cement-mortar alternatives has affected the epoxy resin market growth, the fact remains that epoxy resin never fails to deliver top-notch and unmatchable results in the areas of application.

Trends in Global Waste to Energy Market

Waste-to-Energy is the use of modern combustion and biochemical technologies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban wastes. These new technologies can reduce the volume of the original waste by 90%, depending upon composition and use of outputs. The main categories of waste-to-energy technologies are physical technologies, which process waste to make it more useful as fuel; thermal technologies, which can yield heat, fuel oil, or syngas from both organic and inorganic wastes; and biological technologies, in which bacterial fermentation is used to digest organic wastes to yield fuel.

WTE_Market

The global market for waste-to-energy technologies was valued at US$6.2bn in 2012 which is  forecasted to increase to US$29.2bn by 2022. While the biological WTE segment is expected to grow more rapidly from US$1.4bn in 2008 to approximately US$2.5bn in 2014, the thermal WTE segment is estimated to constitute the vast bulk of the entire industry’s worth. This segment was valued at US$18.5bn in 2008 and is forecasted to expand to US$23.7bn in 2014.

The global market for waste to energy technologies has shown substantial growth over the last five years, increasing from $4.83 billion in 2006, to $7.08 billion in 2010 with continued market growth through the global economic downturn. Over the coming decade, growth trends are expected to continue, led by expansion in the US, European, Chinese, and Indian markets.

By 2021, based on continued growth in Asian markets combined with the maturation of European waste management regulations and European and US climate mitigation strategies, the annual global market for waste to energy technologies will exceed $27 billion, for all technologies combined.

Asia-Pacific’s waste-to-energy market will post substantial growth by 2015, as more countries view the technology as a sustainable alternative to landfills for disposing waste while generating clean energy. In its new report, Frost & Sullivan said the industry could grow at a compound annual rate of 6.7 percent for thermal waste-to-energy and 9.7 percent for biological waste-to-energy from 2008 to 2015.

The WTE market in Europe is forecasted to expand at an exponential rate and will continue to do so for at least the next 10 years. The continent’s WTE capacity is projected to increase by around 13 million tonnes, with almost 100 new WTE facilities to come online by 2012. In 2008, the WTE market in Europe consisted of approximately 250 players due in large to the use of bulky and expensive centralized WTE facilities, scattered throughout Western Europe.