How to Write a Strong Biotechnology Resume

Getting a job in the field of biotechnology is not an easy task. There are uncountable reasons why one can’t easily make it. However, the major culprit is the lack of requisite skills and opportunities. Many a time, a dull resume might also be the reason. A resume is not just a piece of paper. It tells multiple things about the credentials of a person. You must make sure that your resume isn’t harming you in place of doing you any good. Make sure that the resume is eye-catchy as well. It will enable the recruiter to remember your name amongst the other 100 names.

Every industry has some specific expectations with regards to the resume. The field of biotechnology is very technical and has complex conventions of resume. Gaining the appropriate amount of understanding about writing a resume can surely raise the bar for finding a job. You can also take the help of numerous biotech resume writing services for building a perfect resume template. The document must contain all the requisite information, which is crucial from the company’s point of view for determining the applicability of the candidate.

Biotechnology Resume

The students must keep the following tips in mind while preparing a biotech resume:

1. Writing a summary of an objective statement

An objective statement or a summary is a short and precise explanation of all your achievements and career. It lists all the experiences you have in biotechnology or any other relevant and related fields. It also contains the skills that might prove crucial for attaining a specific position in any company.

For example, you might mention that you have experience of 4 years in the field of biotechnology or that you have led a team of up to 50 people very successfully. Such statements are the first things the recruiting manager will notice. Therefore, you must highlight such significant things about you that you want them to know.

2. Listing your education

The education section lists all your educational degrees that are extremely relevant and crucial for the specific position you want to apply to. All the resume writing service providers suggest that people initiate the listing by mentioning the most recent degrees first. Then, they should continue with the others till they reach the oldest degree.

You must add education to your experiences, including your degrees and the school you had your education. For example, if you have a degree of masters in biology from the University of Florida, you should write Master of Science, Bio, University of Florida.

3. Highlighting your interests and skills

It is a crucial part of the resume, as put forward by numerous biotech resume writing services. It includes the list of all the skills that you decide to offer to the company as a candidate. Employers want to recruit staff in biotechnology who poses certain distinctive skills and experiences. It also includes skills like analytical skills, problem-solving skills, and research skills. You can determine such skills by researching the skill requirement of the company.

resume writing

For example, a company that takes on huge projects with short periods may need amazing time management skills. This section is extremely important in biotech as it highlights some of your remarkable transferable skills. Some other skills which you can include in your resume include adaptability, leadership, and communication.

Some other requirements which every resume maker must pay keen attention to are inclusive of the following points:

  • Including all the relevant experiences- such as the sum of money your skills helped save the company.
  • Discussing technology
  • Listing all your publications- either co-authored or authored

Wrapping up

The students can also take the help of numerous resume writing services to enable the resume’s basic proofreading. Such service providers notice such small spelling or grammatical mistakes that you might notice. The candidate must also make sure that their document contains all the necessary keywords. Make sure that if there are any acronyms in your resume, you spell out the same to enable ATS to find it.

By following the above-said tips, you can be sure to mesmerize the next recruiting manager. You must be having the relevant skills and the opportunities. Now is the time to start marketing the same.

What Are The Common Food Emulsifiers?

In the food industry, the process of making new products involves combining all the necessary ingredients more than anything else. Big restaurants like Dominos, Pizza Hut, Subway etc. make their sauces with the process of emulsification. Due to the need for concoction, other operations such as grinding, particle size reduction, emulsification, etc. would take place.

Successful food manufacturing requires equipment like Ginhong mixers that will help mill, grind, reduce particle size, homogenize, disperse, and emulsify. Once done, manufacturers need to make sure that fused molecules of ingredients will no longer depart from one another. In order to do this, emulsifying agents must be added to the overall compound to stabilize it.

Source: The Spruce

What is an emulsifier?

First, let’s define what an emulsifier is. As soon as stirring halts, the emulsion starts to separate again. To maintain the even mixture, an emulsifier is essential. A food emulsifier acts as a bond that holds the particles of the ingredients altogether. It makes the finished product soft and smooth in texture, improves the quality of the mixture, and keeps it firm and stabilized.

Water spattering in food preparation or cooking is also reduced by an emulsifier. It leads to better dispersion, solubilization, crystal modification, foaming, creaming ability, etc. Emulsions have many functions in food processing, even in other industries as well.

The Common Food Emulsifiers

Now that we have understood the definition and functions of an emulsifier in processed foods, it’s time to jump into the enumerated and expounded common food emulsifiers. Let’s begin!

  1. Lecithin

Lecithin is widely used in the commercial baking industry. This emulsifier, composed of fatty compounds, is present in eggs. Emulsifying properties are stored in the phospholipids existing in lecithin. It actually prevents the split of water and oil particles.

Good HDL cholesterol content is increased when lecithin is added to the food mixture, as stated by scientists. The droplets of oil in water are kept safe by this emulsifier, increasing the stability and shelf life of the food.

Lecithin is overflowing with health benefits too. It prevents high cholesterol and cirrhosis caused by drinking alcohol. Also, it improves nerve, brain and muscle functions.

  1. Fatty Acid Derivatives

There are different emulsifiers that can be derived from fatty acids. To name a few, polyglycerol esters (PGE), polysorbates, stearoyl lactylates, propylene glycol esters (PGMS), and sucrose esters are commonly known. In desserts like cakes and their icings, PGE is famously used. For toppings that are whippable, PGMS is mainly applied. Other products like gums, coffee, sauces, etc need sucrose esters in holding their particles.

  1. Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)

Baking is an appealing activity, especially for moms. We all can’t deny that cookies are tasty that’s why our sweet tooths would always go for it anytime. In manufacturing chocolates for applications such as baking, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) works in enhancing the thickness and volume of the product. Chocolate coatings flow satisfactorily when PGPR is added unto its mixture. It also complements lecithin when combined.

Factories find PGPR as a helpful agent in maintaining the good quality of the chocolate or other products that require certain smoothness and viscosity. With that, baking will be much fun for everybody who loves doing it.

  1. Ammonium Phosphatide (AMP)

Ammonium phosphatide (AMP) is sunflower-based. The use of AMP has been most triumphant in chocolate and confectionery manufacturing. It is chiefly efficacious in achieving uniformity and steadiness of the mixture, leading to high-quality food products. It does pretty well in keeping the right attributes of the food. The size, texture, smell, texture, thickness, etc.

AMP can be used as a good alternative of lecithin but it can also be applied with it plus the PGPR.

  1. Mono and Diglycerides

Monoglycerides stay firm in the so-called ‘apha crystalline formation’. As it is very versatile, it works well in foams that are whippable while managing the agglomeration of fats. When water molecules need to be dispersed in a fat phase, monoglycerides serve as an instrument that fairly distributes water into the oil.

For products like chocolates, it gives the sensation that feels like the food product is melting inside your mouth – adding the tastiness of the food. It prompts the smoothness and consistency of the processed bulk. The crystalline structure of the food becomes balanced through its help.

These are the most used food emulsifiers from the early times until today. They are produced when palatable oils are blended with glycerin. Aside from chocolates, baked and dairy products are the ones to consume them most as well.

Conclusion

Aside from holding the ingredients altogether, emulsifiers make the food you eat much more appealing in taste and in appearance. Preservation is also important in prolonging the shelf lives of different products. An emulsifier helps in maintaining the freshness as well as good quality of goods for varying times of consumption. Low fat spreads are prone to mold growth. Hence, an emulsifier as an accessible solution.

There is an appropriate emulsifier for every application. Make sure you’re using the right one!

CRISPR Technology to Revolutionize Bioremediation

When people think of waste management, gene editing probably does not come to most people’s minds. Yet the innovative CRISPR genome modification technology fits well within the confines of managing pollution and waste on the planet. In particular, scientists are looking at how CRISPR technology can help with bioremediation, or pollutant neutralization.

Why Neutralize Pollutants?

The planet is in dire need of help as the negative impact of climate change hovers on the horizon. One of the ways that researchers are revolutionizing waste management and environmentalism is by neutralizing the pollutants that are taking up space in our landfills and oceans.

Scientists have noticed that certain organisms are particularly good at removing toxins from pollutants while others have the advantage of immobilizing toxins. Researchers are connecting the dots in order to figure out how CRISPR can help make these processes more efficient.

CRISPR-Aided Bioremediation

While it is great that scientists have discovered microorganisms that can metabolize pollutants and produce less toxic matter, what if those properties could be expanded?

CRISPR researchers are trying to do just that by using genetic editing to transfer more advantageous genes to other organisms, thus giving them even more power over toxic pollutants. This would speed up the process of natural bioremediation techniques without adding high costs and dangers.

An Edge Over Traditional Techniques

Using CRISPR technology, especially the promising CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral system, will not only speed up the process but it will do a better job than traditional methods of bioremediation. By using the gene editing technique, scientists can create more chemically superior microorganisms that have more advantageous enzymes. That results in better neutrality of harmful pollutants in the planet’s soil and oceans. In turn, this also ramps up molecular biodiversity, which improves the cleanup process.

Speaking of molecules, the CRISPR method targets different molecular processes within a microorganism’s cells, either to regulate an existing gene or to create an entirely new one. When looking at a particular gene, scientists analyze its ability to target pollutants as well as its process for remediation.

Enhancing Bioremediation with CRISPR

Experts need to keep several aspects in mind when improving the abilities of a remediating organism and ramping up its efficiency. First of all, they need to look at the molecular pathways that lead an organism to remediate or neutralize a pollutant. Are there changes or improvements scientists that can make to these pathways? What can they add or take away?

They do a similar thing with the organism’s enzymes. Next comes bioprocessing and biosensor development, which allows scientists to test the microbial cells for chemical testing and removal efficiency.

Removing Harmful Pollutants

Take mercury, for example, which is a metal that is harmful to the planet as well as those who live on it. The E. coli bacteria has a removal efficiency of 96 when it comes to eradicating mercury.

Scientists can take that Hg2 gene and transporter and perhaps transport it to another microorganism that can metabolize and neutralize another type of pollutant. Researchers continue to look at how this technique can help us clean up the growing number of pollutants in the environment.

It is not just microorganisms that they’re working on, either. Genetic manipulation in plants is another exciting endeavor that could help out in the bioremediation field. By looking at the detoxification processes in certain plants, scientists are trying to figure out how to use CRISPR technology to amp up bioremediation or, rather, phytoremediation efforts.

Some human genes could be especially useful to certain plants that can target heavy metals in the soil. Whether they enhance existing plant species or generate completely new ones, this is an exciting development in remediation efforts against pollutants.

Is Aquaculture the Answer to World Hunger?

Feeding a growing world population could become problematic, but aquaculture might hold the key. If humans are anything, we are resourceful. We see a problem with the world, and we do what we can to fix it.  When being nomadic and following food sources was no longer sustainable, we solved the problem by developing agriculture.  Currently, as the population continues to grow and our taste for seafood increases, we’re trying to find ways to meet demand and, at the same time, sustain wild populations of fishes.

aquaculture-fish-farms

Aquaculture is the answer to this current dilemma. Farming fish for food has been around since about 2000 B.C. Since then, technology has helped it advanced and developed better techniques to raise fish for food.

Benefits of Aquaculture

Fish is a great source of protein, and it also contains essential minerals including potassium, zinc, iodine and magnesium. Fish are also rich in phosphorus and calcium. For a healthy heart, the American Heart Association recommends eating fish twice a week.

The health benefits of fish are more than enough reason to eat them, but they are also a delicious meal. There is a large variety of fish to choose from, including freshwater and saltwater varieties. However, the increased amount of people eating fish has had an impact on wild populations. To prevent certain species from being overfished, it is important to find an alternative to providing fish to people, and that includes aquaculture.

Different types of aquaculture must be used to raise different species of fish. Large companies can engage in aquaculture on an industrial scale with fish held in tanks or in pens in lakes, ponds or even the ocean. Families can even perform aquaculture in their backyard.

The variety of fish that you can raise for food includes catfish, bait minnow, trout, carp and tilapia, among others.  It’s also possible to raise shellfish, including oysters and shrimp. Want to try your hand at growing water plants?  You can also use aquaculture principles for water chestnuts and red and brown algae.

Studies have shown that marine aquaculture has the potential to produce 16.5 billion tons of fish per year, which is more than enough to feed the growing population and meet nutritional needs.

Different types of aquaculture must be used to raise different species of fish.

Different types of aquaculture must be used to raise different species of fish.

In some areas, such as parts of Africa, aquaculture has made an enormous impact on the local community’s economy and employment as well. The food produced helps to sustain Africa’s growing population and provides local jobs with steady income.

The Downside of Aquaculture

While it has the potential to feed hungry communities and contribute to local economies, there are some problems associated with aquaculture. Having too many fish in a tank can lead to the spread of disease.  Also, the type of feed the fish eat can impact how healthy they are for humans. Keeping fish in pens in lakes, ponds or the ocean might cause the spread of parasites to wild populations.  Farmed fish could also escape their enclosure and, as a result, alter the natural ecosystem.

Recognizing the shortcomings of aquaculture is the first step to remedying its problems. As technology and farming practices advance and techniques improve, it’s possible that we will resolve many of these issues. This will lead to greater benefits for the human population that depends on fish for food.

Humans have the ingenuity and drive to make the world a better place for themselves and others. Population growth isn’t going to slow down any time soon, and we need to make sure everyone is taken care of and has enough to eat. While aquaculture has its pros and cons, it can be a sustainable and economic way to feed hungry people.  In time, it may even be the answer to world hunger.

4 Tips to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Your Home

In daily life, we make use of several different gases, liquids, and solids, without which life isn’t livable. And it’s not just oxygen that we use in daily life to keep the heart pumping, but there is an entire list of gases that are essential to keep on with life.

One of the most vital gases among all the other is carbon monoxide. This a potent and valuable gas that charges up heaps of electricity and starts up your cars. It’s essential to know what carbon monoxide is as it is widely used inside homes and can be just as dangerous as it is needed. It is a highly flammable gas that, if left unwatched, can create fire and unimaginable damage. For this reason, below are some ways to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning in your home to use it effectively and safely.

1. Address Issues

Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas and can be quite dangerous to have in a closed space, but it makes for many of the essential procedures used in a home. Your heating system most probably is run by carbon monoxide. And if it experiences a tear and a leak, the house could be in danger of destruction, and the residents could suffocate.

Check your heating and other fuel-burning appliances regularly to avoid any mishaps. It is best to get them maintained each year by professionals who can also check the systems for their effective running.

2. Install Carbon Monoxide Detectors

Mostly carbon monoxide can be detected by its firm odor similar to that of rotten eggs. This smell helps to give you a heads up to get out of your home and call for help. However, when there is a slight leakage that is undecidable, or the house residents aren’t awake to notice it, the situation can take a turn for the worst.

Some states have laws that require homes to have CO detectors installed. These detectors should be present on each floor, especially the basement and areas where there are fuel appliances and heaters. It is best to make sure the indicators are installed near bedrooms to get alerts while sleeping.

3. Check the Air Quality

In small houses or congested areas of a home, air can get trapped, and different gases can get clogged, the air quality unhealthy and dangerous to breathe in. Make sure that where you have your oven, furnaces, and fireplaces situated has a proper ventilation system installed. If there are vents already in place, check the air quality and clean them often.

4. Put Out Burners Effectively

Cooking is a necessity in all homes, and even though many households have replaced gas burners to electric burners, there are still many that use the gas cooking method. The gas used for cooking and heating is carbon monoxide, which is sturdy and highly combustible.

To keep safe from sources like these, make sure not to switch on stoves unnecessarily. Keep your fireplaces and furnaces covered to stop the gas from spreading and lingering in the air. Regularly validate that these places are well kept and clean. Also, make sure that the systems work well.

Impact of Philosophy on the Development of Environmental Ethics

Philosophy can be defined as the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, and/or reality, and/or existence. It can be looked at even more so as a study when you consider it to be an academic discipline. The practice of philosophy has had a deep impact on our lives since the time that subject came to be recognized as one and soon after became a discipline.

This impact continues to this day, with the practice being intricately connected with how we live. Here we take a look at how Environmental Ethics tells us how to ensure that every living being on the planet gets its fair chance to survive and its relation to the study of philosophy. There has definitely been a shift in the way we look at our world and how our actions affect it. Fortunately when we say “our” we are finally taking into account all living beings, rather than just humans.

development of environmental ethics

Philosophy in Everyday Lives

Socrates had made a claim that the only life worth living is the “examined” one.  Philosophy, and in turn, philosophers, tend to examine the increasingly mysterious, or even esoteric, phenomena. A few of these can include the complexities of language, or free will, or even morality.  It is easy to find information like this by searching for essays on key concepts in philosophy, online. There are hordes of free essay samples available at present.

Now, despite examining the aforementioned phenomena, philosophers still have a knack for taking intuitive assumptions to uncover their inner workings.  In the end, self-reflection and examination can give you a frustrating day, from the enjoyable one you might have been enjoying.

Every day, human beings lose their grip on consciousness as they fall asleep. It might be comparable to our understanding of the human brain and the understanding of ecology. Despite there being a lot of papers released, in order to explain a great deal about the dryland ecosystems, it knows little about those residing in the ocean deep recesses.

Science has not yet uncovered the specific reasons behind sleep and the exact mechanics of it. It’s amazing to think that we are yet to know most of the mechanics behind an activity the average human being spends a third of life performing. Interestingly even waking up, holds an uncanny resemblance to the awakening of the mind which can be regarded as – “the true aim of philosophy”.

What is Environmental Ethics?

The segment of environmental philosophy looking to extend ethics’ traditional boundaries, from only including humans to including the entire nonhuman world – this is arguably the proper “environmental ethics definition”, in the true sense. It exerts a lot of influence on a vast range of disciplines, like sociology, theology, ecology, etc. It is always trying to include the rights of all nonhuman living beings in all of our ethical and moral values.

Increasing Popularity of Philosophy

Philosophy as a discipline and as a way of thinking has gained massive popularity. It has gone on to feature among the 100 most popular majors among students. People are slowly starting to truly appreciate why philosophy is important and hence there are so many young students selecting this subject. This is evident from the fact that the number of graduates of the subject has taken a 61% hike, from the same time, a decade back.

Environmental Ethics and Its Practice in Different Countries

According to Environmental ethics, our behavior should be based on a number of ethical values, guiding our approach toward other living beings. Despite the human race being considered the primary species, other animals and/or plants are not less important. They deserve their fair share of existence. Environmental issues can be seen posing a host of global challenges, thus, in turn, raising skepticism regarding the topic of sustainability of nature.

impact of philosophy and environmental ethics

As a result, a number of countries have been seen implementing green practices to keep improving, and do their part for the environment. For example, there have been government policies implemented in Norway that ban deforestation. This protects the forest ecosystem and the animals living there. Finland generates a lot of its power from renewable energy sources to ensure that the environment and living beings in it are not harmed. You can easily find out more about such practices even with a bit of light reading.

Conclusion

It is unquestionable that over the past few years there has been a trend of a considerably increasing concern for our environment. It is a change in mindset that is occurring in people from all corners of the globe. People have started to look at the impact that all of our actions have upon environmental ethics and judge it more minutely. As a result, it is safe to say that the field will be here for quite a long time in the future. Not only that, on the basis of its present popularity, the study of philosophy and the environment, and ethical practices is only looking to gain momentum.

Water Hardness: Knowing and Calculating The Perfect “Mineral Water”

Water hardness seems to be a common problem among households worldwide, but there seems to be a certain ignorance as to what this is. What this does is it does more long-term harm despite the beneficial uses. Being a problem of this nature, we must know how to calculate water hardness level and what the desired level of water hardness is.

What is Water Hardness?

Ironically, water hardness has nothing to do with water turning into a solid block of ice or anything involving a transition into something solid. However, the reason for this name is because of what is actually in the water we use or drink.

Sometimes the water we use seems to be different despite the whole house being a general example of cleanliness. For example, one may notice some minerals that are present in cooking dishes or the more obvious scum that seems to be resistant to cleaning.

The simple reason for this would be the existence of “hard water” or water that appears to be infused with undesirable metals, the more prominent ones being calcium and magnesium. These are usually caused by water travelling through places filled with soil and rock, but some have found that water from wells is a breeding ground for this kind of water.

how to calculate water hardness

As a simple experiment to test if your home does have hard water, you may take a bottle and fill it up to one-third of it, and you should apply a few drops of soap. From here, shake or mix the solution well, and naturally, the mixture should be clear with bubbles at the top.

However, if it turns milky and lacks bubbles, your water is hard. The water does not cause any severe problems for the consumer, but these will cause some pipes, appliances, and other parts of the house that use water.

How do you calculate water hardness?

Before knowing how to calculate the possible hardness present in your water, you need to know that there are two types of this hardness, temporary and permanent. Since we want to know more about water hardness, measuring hard water would mean we would be looking for permanent hardness.

This, unlike temporary hardness, cannot be removed by heating the undesirable aspects of the water.

An option for calculating water hardness is to manually calculate the hardness using calcium and magnesium values. However, you would need to submit samples to the lab to receive the exact amount of the minerals found in the water. Nevertheless, it would require the use of equations.

The general equation would be as follows:

CaCO3 (Total Permanent Hardness) = Mg (mg/L) as CaCO3 + Ca (mg/L) as CaCO3

The general equation is the sum of both the hardness of Magnesium and Calcium. However, Magnesium and Calcium hardness is determined by another equation in the form of:

Ca or Mg hardness mg/L as CaCO3 / Equivalent Weight of CaCO3 = Ca or Mg in mg/L / Equivalent Weight of Ca or Mg

Calculating the equivalent weight would involve dividing the atomic weight by the valency, and these hold values. For example, calcium would be 20.04 while Magnesium would value at 12.15.

For Calcium Carbonate, this requires the molecular weight, which would be set at 50.04.

In sum, we must first determine the hardness first of the minerals, using the given values of Calcium or Magnesium in milligrams per litre and the set equivalent weights from the mineral being calculated and Calcium Carbonate.

Once with the two values, they may be added up to form the total permanent hardness of Calcium Carbonate.

Since one calculates for any concerning value, it would also be wise to know the desired water hardness level. It is important to remember that water still possesses minerals that are helpful to the body. However, much like everything in daily life, an excess can cause future problems.

The healthy amount would be at 10 to 50 parts per million of the Calcium Carbonate, while the slightly hard would range from 50 to a hundred. The actual hard water is seen when the amount hits 100, while 200 parts is an amount in which it is incredibly excessive.

Negative Impacts of Hard Water

As mentioned before, hard water does not have any serious problems when consumed by drinking.

This could be a great help for the body as it can give minerals that it could lack. However, this causes much more visible problems when used as bathwater as it interferes with soaps and other cleaning regiments, eventually leaving the skin to become irritated and dry.

disadvantages of hard water

These also affect pipes, boilers, and other water-using items in the household as this could affect their daily functions.

We can appreciate the use of hardness as a benefit, but this causes more damage in the long term. Therefore, it is important to be aware and stop this at the earliest possible moment.

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Everything You Should Know About Car Transmission System

A car transmission, also known as the transmission system, is the mechanism by which power created by the engine is transferred to the driving wheels. This part of the vehicle is the most important in determining the power and functionality of your engine systems. The two types of transmissions include automatic transmission and manual transmission.

A manual transmission requires the driver to complete extra steps of selecting and engaging the gear ratios. In contrast, mechanical efforts are minimized in an automatic transmission, and different speeds are obtained automatically.

If you are wondering how a car transmission works, it all depends on the type of transmission. However, regardless of the type, the answer to what a transmission does is to enable the gear ratio between the vehicle’s engine and drive wheels to adjust as the vehicle speeds up and slows down. When not in motion, the transmission disconnects the drive wheels from the engine. So let’s dive deeper into details on how manual and automatic transmission work.

working of car transmission system

All you need to know about manual transmission

A manual transmission is a manual gearbox or stick-shift or standard transmission class of transmission where the driver literally uses a stick shift to change gears. Changing the gears involves releasing the clutch disc through a third pedal located on the left side of the break. Then select the chosen gear and engage the clutch again. If the driver frequently engages the clutch slowly, the disc will wear out early. If the driver engages the clutch too quickly, the engine will stall.

Components of a manual gearbox

Narrowing down the various parts and components of the gearbox will help you understand the complex way a manual transmission works. Some significant features of a manual gearbox include

  1. The clutch and clutch pedal: Consisting of various small parts, the clutch transfers the engine torque to the transmission. The clutch pedal is a piece of gear that is hydraulically controlled. When you depress, it disengages the clutch.
  2. Flywheel: Normally circular in shape and used to send the engine torque to the clutch disc, which interacts with the smooth surface of the flywheel.
  3. Collar and selector fork: An arm-like-looking piece of gear that aids in moving the collars through the output shaft. By locking the collar to a specific gear, you can always select different other gears. This results in the transmission of torque from the layshaft to the output shaft.
  4. Synchronizers: Helps the collar and the gear engage with each other and importantly matches their speed if there is a difference.
  5. Output shaft and Layshaft: The output shaft’s gears mesh with the lay shaft’s gears when one receives the engine power first.
  6. Gears: Gear often comes in different sizes in a manual gearbox. Large gearwheels contain more teeth and offer more torque to reduce the car’s speed, whereas small gears provide less torque to your car so that it can run at a higher speed.

How a manual transmission works

  • Before switching the vehicle’s key on, you need to press the clutch pedal down to disengage the clutch. This cuts the power between the engine’s input shaft and the transmission and ensures that the engine is alive before powering the vehicle.
  • Shift the gearshift to the first gear so that the gear shift can move towards the latter one. The first gear has a connection to the layshaft, which is connected to the engine input file via another gear.
  • The synchronizer collar connected to the shifting fork helps the driving gear in the transportation of power to the output shaft and matches their speed if there is any difference.
  • You now need to apply slight pressure on the gas pedal and then take your foot off the clutch. This reconnects the gearbox and the engine making your vehicle start moving.
  • You now need to repeat the same process of changing the gear so that you can speed up or slow down the car.

 

car transmission system

Generally, bade-model vehicles are fitted with a 5-speed manual transmission, while pricey vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission such as the rebuilt nv5600 transmission.

All you need to know about automatic transmission

With an automatic transmission, things are simplified as compared to a manual transmission. There is neither a clutch pedal nor a gear shift in an automatic transmission vehicle. Once the transmission is put into drive, all other things are automatic.

Components of an automatic transmission

To help understand what happens in an automatic transmission, let us look at the specific parts of an automatic transmission.

  1. Transmission casing: Houses all parts of the transmission.
  2. Torque Converter: Transmits to the transmission input shaft from the engine. It also helps in the multiplication of engine torque output
  3. Planetary gears: This allows automatic increase and decrease of the gear ratios.

How automatic transmission works

  • The engine dispatches power to the torque converter’s pump
  • The pump receives the power and, through the transmission fluid, sends it to the torque converter’s turbine
  • Through the stator, the transmission fluid is sent back to the pump
  • The stator multiplies power and sends it back to the turbine
  • The turbine is normally connected to the central shaft, which is also connected to the transmission.
  • The turbine then spins the shaft spins dispatching power to the first planetary gear
  • The planetary gear arrangements determine of power transmitted to the rest of the drive
  • Power from the torque converter will either make the ring gear, the sun gear, or the planetary carrier of the planetary gear system stay stationary or move.

Stages of automatic transmission

  • Park(P): Locks the transmission, restricting the vehicle from moving
  • Reverse(R): Puts the car in reverse gear, making the car move backward
  • Neutral(N): disconnects the transmission from the wheel
  • Drive(D): allows the vehicle to move and can accelerate through a range of gears
  • Low(L): allows you to lower your speed and move on middy or hilly areas

Now, as you cruise down the freeways and feel the car shifting gears, you will have an idea of what is exactly taking place under the hood. It’s all about the transmission, but if you need to get a new one it’s all about cheap online transmissions!

Counseling Resources for Stressed Scientists

Professionals who work in fast-paced, high-stress jobs often find themselves struggling to keep up with their mental health. Scientists, engineers, and physicians dedicate themselves to careers of science without always managing the personal ramifications of a demanding work life. While it benefits all of society when scientists are dedicated to their work, it is also extremely important that they take care of their own mental health both for their personal development as well as long-term, lasting professional success.

high-energy-bills

Resources for Stress Management

If you experience struggles with your mental health, it may help to read self-help articles written by mental health professionals. For scientists, this is much akin to reading research papers and then applying the findings to your own research. After reading such articles, reflect upon their value and delve into an analysis of how their advice can be applied in your own life.

As a scientist, you may be able to think linearly and analytically, and this thought process can actually be applied to the analysis of your mental health. Try searching MyTherapist for online resources, tips, and advice on finding qualified therapists who are ready to work with you.

When available academic resources do not adequately treat your mental health, the next step in the progression of addressing mental health issues may be to talk with a friend, colleague, or significant other. It is very helpful to discuss feelings and concerns with people you trust. It may even be worthwhile to read the self-help articles with another person so that you can each brainstorm ways in which the information included in the articles can be integrated into your life.

These articles may contain actionable advice, like instructions for meditation, journaling, or deep breathing that could begin your journey to improved mental wellness.

Therapy and Counseling

If your mental state does not improve after reading articles and having discussions with trusted companions, it is likely time to pursue therapy. Therapy can help when mental health issues loom with no apparent end to the symptoms in sight.

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The stigmas surrounding therapy have fortunately been shrinking. Therapy works well for those experiencing a diagnosed mental illness, but it can work wonders for anyone. Especially for those bright-minded scientists who regard their mental strength as impressive, it may feel demoralizing to need to speak with someone to regain control of your mind. Just remember that experiencing troubles with mental health is a very common occurrence.

Just because a person is very smart, it does not mean that they can control all mental processes and emotions. Addressing and improving any existing mental health struggles through therapy could actually benefit your thought process and therefore your work.

Online Therapy

Virtual therapy is a great resource that is only growing in popularity and availability. It provides patients with a convenient and confidential way to work through issues with a licensed therapist.

For busy scientific professionals, it may be difficult to find the time to schedule therapy sessions, drive to the therapist’s office, spend an hour in therapy, and then drive home. Thanks to virtual therapy, sessions may be more flexible and can involve less commuting and associated stress.

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Scheduling therapy sessions online is a simple, quick task that provides great flexibility in scheduling. And, since everything is online, the patient need not leave the comfort of their home or office to engage in therapy sessions.

Another benefit of virtual therapy is that the cost of online sessions is typically lower than in-office visits. While some health insurance companies may not cover virtual therapy as much as in-person therapy, the overall cost is still often much lower.

In-person therapy can cost between $65 and $200+ per session, depending upon the therapist and the type of therapy needed. Luckily, there are different types of online mental health services available to patients that represent a range of price points.

On some sites, text or email options can be available for around $40 per week. Sessions with online therapists are less expensive than in-office sessions and typically run between $75 and $120 per session. This is a moderately priced therapy option that provides virtual face-to-face treatment at a lower cost.

Remember to choose the treatment options that are appropriate for your mental condition and fit well with your lifestyle. The life of a scientist is tough enough, and caring for your mental health is a vital and valuable part of one’s personal and professional success.

Everything You Need to Know About Carbon Black

Carbon Black is a commercial form of solid carbon that is manufactured in highly controlled processes to produce specifically engineered aggregates of carbon particles that vary in particle size, aggregate size, shape, porosity and surface chemistry. Carbon Black typically contains more than 95 % pure carbon with minimal quantities of oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.

In the manufacturing process, Carbon Black particles range from 10 nm to approximately 500 nm in size. These fuse into chain-like aggregates, which define the structure of individual Carbon Black grades.

What is Carbon Black

Carbon Black is used in a diverse group of materials in order to enhance their physical, electrical and optical properties. Its largest volume use is as a reinforcement and performance additive in rubber products.

In rubber compounding, natural and synthetic elastomers are blended with Carbon Black, elemental sulphur, processing oils and various organic processing chemicals, and then heated to produce a wide range of vulcanized rubber products. In these applications, Carbon Black provides reinforcement and improves resilience, tear-strength, conductivity and other physical properties.

Carbon Black is the most widely used and cost effective rubber reinforcing agent (typically called Rubber Carbon Black) in tire components (such as treads, sidewalls and inner liners), in mechanical rubber goods (“MRG”), including industrial rubber goods, membrane roofing, automotive rubber parts (such as sealing systems, hoses and anti-vibration parts) and in general rubber goods (such as hoses, belts, gaskets and seals).

Applications of Carbon Black

Besides rubber reinforcement, Carbon Black is used as black pigment and as an additive to enhance material performance, including conductivity, viscosity, static charge control and UV protection. This type of Carbon Black (typically called Specialty Carbon Black) is used in a variety of applications in the coatings, polymers and printing industries, as well as in various other special applications.

Actually, after oil removal and ash removal processing from tire pyrolysis, we can get high-purity commercial carbon black, which can be used to make color masterbatch, color paste, oil ink and as addictive in plastic and rubber products. Besides, after activation treatment, the carbon black will become good materials to produce activated carbon.

In the coatings industry, treated fine particle Carbon Black is the key to deep jet black paints. The automotive industry requires the highest black intensity of black pigments and a bluish undertones.

Carbon Black has got a wide array of applications in different industries

Small particle size Carbon Blacks fulfill these requirements. Coarser Carbon Blacks, which offer a more brownish undertone, are commonly used for tinting and are indispensable for obtaining a desired grey shade or color hue.

In the polymer industry, fine particle Carbon Black is used to obtain a deep jet black color. A major attribute of Carbon Black is its ability to absorb detrimental UV light and convert it into heat, thereby making polymers, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, more resistant to degradation by UV radiation from sunlight. Specialty Carbon Black is also used in polymer insulation for wires and cables. Specialty Carbon Black also improves the insulation properties of polystyrene, which is widely used in construction.

In the printing industry, Carbon Black is not only used as pigment but also to achieve the required viscosity for optimum print quality. Post-treating Carbon Black permits effective use of binding agents in ink for optimum system properties. New Specialty Carbon Blacks are being developed on an ongoing basis and contribute to the pace of innovation in non-impact printing.