Problems Caused by Pigeon Population Growth

Pigeons, these flying birds have grown in number alarmingly in the past few years. You find them flocking around in your garden or sitting on your window sill cooing in their particular manner. It seems like they are everywhere and have started to feel annoying. So, what can be done to control their vast population? And how did it increase so much?  Is using a pigeon birth control tactic the answer? If so, then which tactic could be the most effective in controlling their population? Read on to find your answers.

It has been estimated that the worldwide population of pigeons is 26,00,00,000. The main cause behind these big numbers is that some people feed these pigeons just because they love to. That is, they feed on humanitarian grounds since they feel that they must. They do so to ensure that pigeons don’t starve to death. At the same time, others do so because they believe that feeding birds is their moral duty.

pigeons-health-problems

Thus feeding birds at feeding centers and public places has become a common practice. This feeding is the main cause of the overpopulation of pigeons. Even if it gives you satisfaction, it actually ends up becoming harmful rather than benefiting you. As Dr. Naveen Panday says that alarmingly, feeding pigeons exposes us to health problems and may become a danger for society.

Health problems caused by pigeons

Pigeons secrete their droppings at odd places almost everywhere. These droppings are filled with spores. If you breathe them in, then they may cause many problems for you. The foremost of them being respiratory disorders. Moreover, the feces of pigeons is extremely acidic. If dropped on buildings, it destroys them. It also corrodes monuments.

In addition to this, female pigeons reproduce at an alarming rate; that is, they give birth to 48 squash in a year! On average, a pigeon can live up to 20 to 25 years. With such long lifespans for a bird, they don’t die off quickly. A well-fed pigeon excretes around 11.5 kilograms of hazardous droppings in just a year.

Global actions for prevention

In the year 2001, in London, a ban was imposed on the Trafalgar Square on feeding pigeons as it is extremely toxic for human health. In 2008, Venice also put restrictions on people who sell grains for feeding pigeons, applying strict penalties on them. Even Spain’s Catalan Town took a precautionary step in managing their pigeon population. They have been feeding pigeons Ovistop, a contraceptive that is composed of corn seeds. Those seeds are then covered with Nicarbazin. This helps in limiting their population.

Contraception

Talking of contraceptives, the OvoControl pigeon control program is your perfect choice for limiting their population. It has been estimated that by using the OvoControl program, pigeon growth declined rapidly with a 50% decrease per year. Furthermore, this birth control technique is humane and non-lethal. It simply disturbs the female pigeon’s ability to produce an egg. Thus fewer eggs mean fewer birds.

Diseases Caused By Pigeons

Dr. Kedar Toraskar says that for patients suffering from bronchitis, asthma or similar respiratory diseases, exposure to pigeons is harmful to their health. In fact, it may end up worsening their condition. The best preventive measure that can be taken is the complete removal of the source and maintaining cleanliness in the contaminated area. However, killing them off is not an option. Since this method does not produce immediate results; instead, their population increases rapidly. If you kill them, they would simply grow more. Thus OvoControl program is an ideal choice.

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In addition to this, patients suffering from the diseases mentioned above should consult their physician at once to control their condition before it gets out of hand. Other birds like parrots, parakeets etc., can also worsen these diseases.

The biggest con of feeding sites is that a lot of these are constructed right outside marketplaces or community areas. As a result, many people are vulnerable to these problems. Doctors say that frequent feeding sites may lead to a disease known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In common terms, this is called pigeon breeders disease or bird fanciers disease. Persistent dry cough, fever, malaise and fatigue are the symptoms of this particular disease.

Dr. Kedar also adds that exposure to pigeons might cause progressive symptoms, including irreversible lung fibrosis and, in severe cases, death. These issues are caused by exposure to fecal matter and proteinaceous material on dried dust which finely falls off from the pigeon feathers.

Conclusion

Different governments and authorities must take quick steps to shut down the pigeon feeding stations. Hence all of these birds will move away somewhere else in the search for food. Furthermore, using anti-fertility drugs or contraceptives like OvoControl would end up controlling pigeon growth without harming them in return.

Waste Management Challenges in Developing Nations

Waste is the result of collective failure from public, legislative rules, lack of funds and technical support. Public awareness and proper knowledge of waste management and end use of different types of waste, health effects, environmental problems and economic issues that are related to waste management is very important for successful execution of any waste management related practices. Everyone needs to get better knowledge, proper understanding of waste management issues and their practices to curb it. Basic training needs to be initiated from governments in this regard, which can be very effective. Poor knowledge can make the best planned technique questionable.

The increasing cost of waste disposal is a cause of major concern in developing nations

In developing countries, participation level of most citizens in waste management is very low, with residents in urban areas are not actively involved in the process of waste management. Even though it’s low, but very beneficial for future prospect and for more meaningful involvement of majority of public in waste management practices.

People should be educated about sorting out waste based on their type e.g. recyclable waste, hazardous waste, green waste etc. Majority of people across the world are not aware of waste as recycling material, amazingly most of them think plastic is recyclable waste. Involving people who are unaware of waste management practice is extremely difficult.

In developing countries, practices of waste management are usually carried by poor, for their survival. It has been estimated that 2% of population in Asia, Latin America and Africa are dependent on waste for their livelihood. Family organized, or individual manual scavengers are often involved with waste management practices with very limited supportive network and facilities with increased risk of health effects. Also, this practice prevents their children from further education.

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Despite the bad consequences, it should be kept in mind that this practice keeps them employed and provide livelihood in countries with high unemployed population. But measure need to be taken to provide their better lifestyles, social behaviour towards people involved in waste management practices, provide them with facilities to reduce their health-related risk and increase their working efficiency.

In developing countries, where government support for waste management is scarce, people need to come strongly against their local municipal office or government if they see things are not changing and stacks of waste are piling up. They should protest to protect their environment, health and keep living secure and healthy for their children.

Solid Waste Management – India’s Burning Issue

For the first time in the history of India, the year 2012 saw several public protests against improper solid waste management all across India – from the northernmost state Jammu and Kashmir to the southernmost Tamil Nadu. A fight for the right to clean environment and environmental justice led the people to large scale demonstrations, including an indefinite hunger strike and blocking roads leading to local waste handling facilities. Improper waste management has also caused a Dengue Fever outbreak and threatens other epidemics.

In recent years, solid waste management has been the only other unifying factor leading to public demonstrations all across India, after corruption and fuel prices. Public agitation resulted in some judicial action and the government’s remedial response, but the waste management problems are still unsolved and might lead to a crisis if this continues for too long without any long term planning and policy reforms.

Solid-Wastes-India

Hunger Strike in Kerala

The President of Vilappilsala Village Panchayat went on a hunger strike recently, against her counterpart, the Mayor of Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is the state capital of Kerala, and Vilappilsala is a village 22 km away.

Since July 2000, about 80% of the waste generated in Thiruvananthapuram is being transported to a waste composting plant and a dumpsite in Vilappilsala village. Since the same month, respiratory illnesses reported in Vilappil Primary Health Center increased by 10 times from an average of 450 to 5,000 cases per month. People who used to regularly swim in the village’s aquifer started contracting infections; swarms of flies have ever since been pervasive; and a stigma of filth affected households throughout the community. This was a source of frustration as locals who, as Indians, prize the opportunity to feed and host guests, found them unwilling to even drink a glass of water in their homes. Currently, there is not a single household which has not experienced respiratory illnesses due to the waste processing plant and the adjoining dumpsite.

On the other hand, Thiruvananthapuram’s residents had to sneak out at night with plastic bags full of trash to dispose them behind bushes, on streets or in water bodies, and had to openly burn heaps of trash every morning for months. This was because the waste generated was not being collected by the City as it could not force open the composting plant and dumpsite against large scale protests by Vilappilsala’s residents. This is why in August – 2012, about 2,500 police personnel had to accompany trucks to the waste treatment plant as they were being blocked by local residents lying down on the road, and by some, including the village’s President, by going on an indefinite hunger strike.

Municipal Commissioner Replaced in Karnataka

In response to a similar situation in Bengaluru, the state capital of Karnataka, where the streets were rotting with piles of garbage for months, the municipal commissioner of the city was replaced to specifically address the waste management situation. Against the will of local residents, a landfill which was closed following the orders issued by the state’s pollution control board in response to public agitation had to be reopened soon after its closure as the city could not find a new landfill site.

Mavallipura landfill in Bangalore

Population density and the scale of increasing urban sprawl in India make finding new landfill sites around cities nearly impossible due to the sheer lack of space for Locally Unwanted Land Uses (LULUs) like waste management.

Dengue Outbreak in West Bengal

Even if partially because of improper waste management, Kolkata, state capital of West Bengal and the third biggest city in India experienced a Dengue Fever outbreak with 550 confirmed cases and 60 deaths. This outbreak coincides with a 600% increase in dengue cases in India and 71% increase in malarial cases in Mumbai in the last five years.

Accumulation of rain water in non biodegradable waste littered around a city act as a major breeding environment for mosquitoes, thus increasing the density of mosquito population and making the transmission of mosquito related diseases like dengue, yellow fever and malaria easier.

Rabies in Srinagar

Rabies due to stray dog bites already kills more than 20,000 people in India every year. Improper waste management has caused a 1:13 stray dog to human ratio in Srinagar (compared to 1 per 31 people in Mumbai and 1 per 100 in Chennai), where 54,000 people were bitten by stray dogs in a span of 3.5 years. Municipal waste on streets and at the dumpsite is an important source of food for stray dogs.

The ultimate solution to controlling stray dogs is effective waste management. The public has been protesting about this stray dog menace for months now with no waste management solutions in sight, but only partial short term measures like dog sterilization.

Why Eco-Friendly Industrial Coatings Deserve Your Attention?

Industrial plants and facilities have been instrumental in propelling the modernization of human society. From that pen you use to sign your cheques to the knife you use to cut fruits for breakfast – almost every object of daily use has been manufactured at a production unit.

However, despite the numerous benefits of industries, they’ve been responsible for a wide array of environmental issues, including greenhouse gas emission, global warming, and air pollution. Also, improper waste management at manufacturing plants has adversely affected biodiversity in various regions.

The good news is that today’s industrial units are becoming more aware of their environmental impact and taking various steps to reduce their carbon footprint. This change has been propelled by increasing consumer demand for sustainable business practices, as well as federal and state regulations.

But while you’re striving to reduce energy consumption and waste generation at your plant, you’re likely ignoring the crucial aspect of industrial paint. That’s right! The paint that’s used for industrial plants, machinery, and tools is a key contributor to environmental degradation.

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This, in turn, has compelled manufacturers and plant managers to look for eco-friendly industrial paint options from established distributors, such as Promain Paints. But if you’re new to the world of eco-friendly industrial paint, you might be skeptical about making the switch.

Is eco-friendly industrial paint worth the cost? Is it going to have the same characteristics as traditional industrial coatings? Is it mandatory for industrial units to use eco-friendly coatings?

If you’re looking for answers to these questions, we’ve got you covered. In this blog, we’ll delve deeper into the concept of industrial paints and understand their environmental impact. We’ll also explore the benefits of replacing traditional industrial paint with eco-friendly alternatives. Let’s get started.

Industrial Paint: A Closer Look

Industrial paint or industrial coating is specifically formulated for machinery, equipment, structural facilities, and end products at manufacturing plants and other industrial units. It’s also used to coat floors and other surfaces that endure the stress of heavy machinery.

Industrial paint can be in the form of a liquid, powder, or paste. When exposed to natural air, the paint gets cured and dried, thus forming a protective layer over the surface on which it’s been applied.

The primary purpose of industrial coating is to protect equipment, goods, and other substrates from physical and chemical damage. Depending on its chemical composition, the paint can also prevent the accumulation of dirt and grime. It even goes a long way to improve safety by making surfaces, such as floors, less slippery.

Typically, industrial paint comprises the following components:

  • Pigments
  • Binders
  • Solvents
  • Additives

Pigments are the chemicals or dyes that give the paint its color. Commonly used pigments include titanium oxide, iron oxide, and phthalocyanine derivatives. Binders are polymers, such as alkyd and acrylic resins, that allow the paint to adhere to the substrate and form a protective film on drying.

A solvent is a liquid that’s added to the paint to reduce its viscosity and improve its consistency so that it can be sprayed or applied with a brush. Typical solvents used in industrial paint include aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ethers, alcohols, ketones, etc.

Additives are special chemicals that give specific characteristics to the paint. Common examples of industrial paint additives include wetting agents, drying agents, fungicides, biocides, and plasticizers.

Effect of Industrial Coating on the Environment

The solvents used in industrial paint contain toxic chemicals known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs have low boiling points and react with other gases present in the air when exposed to sunlight. They’re also responsible for giving paint its characteristic smell.

Short-term inhalation of VOCs can cause a wide array of health problems, including headaches, nausea, dizziness, and skin rashes. Prolonged exposure to these chemicals can lead to serious diseases, including cancer and liver ailments, as well as damage the central nervous system.

However, the impact of VOCs isn’t restricted to health-related disorders. They also adversely affect the environment and cause air pollution. It’s because these chemicals react with nitrogen oxides present in the environment in the presence of sunlight. This, in turn, results in the formation of tropospheric or ground-level ozone.

Ground-level ozone is a harmful air pollutant that creates smog and damages plants. It could affect the natural habitat of various animals and, in turn, destroy biodiversity. Also, it acts as a greenhouse gas, thereby contributing to global warming. That’s why increased use of conventional industrial paint is proving to be catastrophic for the environment.

The Search for Eco-Friendly Options

The harmful effects of industrial coating have forced manufacturers to look for environmentally-friendly alternatives. Eco-friendly industrial paint usually contains special solvents that emit negligible or very low amounts of VOCs into the air.

industrial-valve

The biggest benefit of using eco-friendly paint is that it helps you comply with the environmental regulations in your area. The Environmental Protection Agency has outlined specific limits for VOC emissions in different regions. Non-compliance with these regulations could result in legal ramifications.

Also, many eco-friendly paints are formulated to be more durable. Some of them are even made using bio-renewable or post-consumer waste raw materials. This further reduces the environmental impact of your unit and takes you a step closer to creating sustainable business operations.

What other steps are you taking to minimize the environmental impact of your business? Share your suggestions in the comments section below.

Challenges in Hazardous Medical Waste Management

Medical waste management is a concern of healthcare facilities all over the world; about 10-20% of the facility’s budget every year is spent on waste disposal. According to the WHO, about 85% of the total amount of generated waste is non hazardous but the remaining 15% is considered infectious, toxic or radioactive. While non-hazardous medical waste poses less problems, the risks and challenges of hazardous medical waste management must be considered carefully, since incineration or open burning of hazardous medical waste can result in emissions of dangerous pollutants such as dioxins and furans.

medical-waste-management

For this reason, measures must be taken to ensure safe disposal of hazardous medical waste waste in order to prevent negative impact on the environment or biological hazards, especially in developing countries.

1. Health Risks

Biologically hazardous waste can be a source of infection due to the harmful microorganisms it contains; the most exposed are hospital patients, hospital staff, health workers. However, the situation is potentially harmful for the general public as well. The risks include chemical burns, air pollution, radiation burns and toxic exposure to harmful pharmaceutical products and substances, such as mercury or dioxins, especially during the process of waste incineration.

Other risks can also derive from the incorrect disposal of needles and syringes; worldwide, it is estimated that, every year, about 16 billion infections are administered. Unfortunately, not all needles are safely eliminated, creating risk of infection but also the possibility of unintentional reuse. Even though this risk has decreased in recent years, unsafe infections are still responsible for many new cases of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

2. Environmental Impacts

Incorrect disposal of untreated healthcare waste can contaminate drinking and ground water in landfill, and also release dangerous chemical substances in the environment. Deficient waste incineration can also release hazardous pollutants in the air, and generate dioxins and furans, substances which have been linked to cancer and other adverse health conditions. Heavy metals, if incinerated, can lead to the diffusion of toxic metals in the environment.

The Way Forward

There is still a long way to go in order to ensure safe disposal of hazardous healthcare waste. A joint WHO/UNICEF assessment conducted in 2015 found that only 58% of analyzed facilities over 24 countries had appropriate medical waste disposal systems in place.

Strategies to improve healthcare waste segregation is an essential step in medical waste management

In the workplace, it is important to raise awareness and promote self-practices. Training in the areas of infection control and clinical waste management is important in order to maintain a clean, safe environment for patients and staff alike. Specialized industrial cleaning can also be effective in reducing risk of infection.

It is also essential to develop safe methods and technologies of treating hazardous medical waste, as opposed to medical waste incineration, which has already been shown to be ineffective and dangerous. Alternatives to incineration, such as microwaving or autoclaving, greatly reduce the release of hazardous emissions.

Finally, developing global strategies and systems to improve healthcare waste segregation is another essential step; since only about 15% of clinical waste is hazardous, treatment and disposal costs could be reduced significantly with proper segregation practices. Furthermore, these practices also reduce risks of infections for those workers who handle clinical waste.

Is Tire Recycling Dangerous?

Not too long ago, mountains of old tires were to be found in virtually every town and city’s landfill, and toxic tire fires that would sometimes take months to subside were a common occurrence. Today, these tire piles are a rarity, and thankfully, so are the fires that used to go with them.

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We have largely to thank the combined initiatives of scientists, entrepreneurs, and legislators from banishing unsightly these unsightly tire piles from the landscape. Today you’re more likely to see old tires in your yoga mat or the asphalt you drive on than in ugly piles that you can see from the distance.

However, there have been questions about the widespread use of tire chips, especially in playgrounds, as mulch, and as repurposed water containers for agriculture and livestock.

These concerns are quite understandable, as we are in direct contact with tire chips when they are used in the first two applications. When used for agriculture and livestock, there seems to be a distinct and logical risk that any toxins that are released in those applications may eventually end up in our bodies.

Recycled tire products are safe for consumers

Provided that you are not the one processing the tires yourself (more on that later), there is an extremely low toxicity risk in tire chips. A typical tire chip is made from old tires, which means that they have already off-gassed much of their volatile organic compounds (VOC’s).  New tires emit a good amount of VOC’s, which you can readily detect because of the unique new tire smell.

Many of these compounds have been linked to cancer. However, decades of research and uncontrolled use of old tires in different applications through the 20th century seem to strongly indicate that unless you are actually involved in producing or processing tires, your risks are quite low due to the low dosage of chemicals a typical consumer can expect. It’s the doses that makes a chemical toxic, and in the case of old tires where most tire chips are derived, the risk is negligible.

However, working in an environment where you can actually smell the “new tire scent” constantly can be a significant risk. By analogy, a bartender will be fine if they have a drink with one customer. But if they drink with every single customer that comes by every night, they’re in serious trouble.

Recycling large volumes of tires can be problematic

Unless you constantly work with tires, the risk is quite minimal. You can and should feel free to recycle or repurpose any tires you have around your house or yard into furniture, tire swings, planters, or pet beds. However, if you’re thinking of recycling dozens of tires a week, you should reconsider, as the particulate dust from carving up or shredding old tires can also be a risk over time if you don’t have the right equipment or safety gear.

Improper tire recycling can also heighten your exposure to dangerous chemicals in the tires, especially when they are subjected to the heat of a grinder or shredder that is not specifically meant for tire recycling. This can expose you to high levels of carcinogenic VOCs without you realizing it.

If you need to safely dispose of a high volume of tires, or tires that are difficult to recycle, such as those on tractors and OTR vehicles, be sure to contact a professional recycler like Western Tire Recyclers.

Everything You Need to Know About Virtual Therapy

Around 13 percent of the world population is afflicted by mental health issues, and psychotherapy has emerged as a saviour for many people.  Psychotherapy can treat a wide range of mental illnesses, such as, depression, personality disorders, drug addiction, personal loss, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychotherapy can be one-on-one or can be a group session. Some forms of psychotherapy last only a few sessions, while others may continue for weeks.

However, the coronavirus outbreak has made it difficult for people to find a therapist, due to travel restrictions and frequent lockdowns at many places.  In these trying times, virtual therapy has been a blessing in disguise for mental health patients, and has proven to be as effective as a face-to-face therapy session. Due to the stigma attached to mental health, online therapy is extremely useful for people with mental disorders.

virtual-psychotherapy

In virtual psychotherapy, the therapist remotely addresses the patient’s symptoms remotely through a video chat or phone call. The remote interaction can take place on a smartphone, tablet, laptop or PC, whereby the therapist will ask relevant questions related to your mental health, and advise on how to overcome them using psychotherapy techniques and medication.

Benefits of Virtual Therapy

Let us examine how virtual therapy is a boon for mental health patients:

1. A friendly home environment

Virtual therapy encourages mental health patients to self-manage their symptoms in the comfortable and friendly home environment, thus fostering self-independence. You can monitor your progress and gain self-confidence by following a personalized therapeutic plan for mental wellbeing. Online therapy sessions are a huge benefit for disabled people as it reduces the stress associated with regular trips to the therapy clinic.

2. Personalized interaction with the therapist

The online communication with your psychotherapist to address your symptoms and answer your mental health-related queries is a major advantage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual therapy can also offset unpredictable situations, like bad weather and commuting issues, and may come handy for those folks who are too busy and want to get therapy on their own terms.

3. More privacy

Many people prefer a more private setting when going for mental health treatment, primarily due to the social stigma attached with mental illnesses. A virtual physiotherapist will not only ensure your privacy but also provide quality therapeutic treatment without the need for you to step out of your cozy home or waiting for hours in a therapist’s waiting room. Virtual psychotherapy sessions are conducted through a secure and encrypted connection.

4. Timely care

Online therapy has made it possible for people with mental disorders to seek an appointment with the therapist and get timely care when they it the most. You do not have to worry about the travel time, location, traffic situation or mobility problems. The therapist will assess your mental health symptoms, observe your issues and diagnose your problems promptly, thus ensuring timeliness of care.

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5. Overall health improvement

Online therapy helps you to connect with a qualified professional who is genuinely concerned about your mental wellbeing. The restrictions imposed by the pandemic has made it difficult for many people to interact with others, and the online face-to-face communication with a trained therapist will be helpful in reducing the stress levels.

Bottom Line

Online therapy is an effective and proven alternative to traditional therapy sessions. A virtual therapist provides practical and personalized treatment to mental health patients using a stable Internet connection and a smartphone or tablet, and ensures timeliness of care and patient satisfaction, similar to that a traditional therapist provides. To sum up, virtual therapists can help mental health patents to live a healthier and joyful life.

CBD Oil Dosage: How Much Should You Take?

Cannabidiol or CBD is an active compound found in hemp and cannabis. Unlike Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, CBD doesn’t have addictive and intoxicating effects. That’s why CBD oil is a preferred alternative option for treating a wide array of medical conditions, such as pain, insomnia, anxiety, and seizure disorders. Keith of The Hempire has had specific studies on the effects of CBD oil on mental health. However, the question is how much should you take? In this post, learn more about the right CBD dosage so you can apply what’s best for your needs.

General CBD Dosage Considerations

Since CBD is obtained or extracted from a natural plant, it’s generally considered safe to consume. Like any other herbal plant, CBD is a plant medicine, with therapeutic benefits. The right CBD dosage depends on a lot of factors that affect your bodily response, immediate effects, and outcomes.

Here are the important factors when determining the right CBD dosage for you:

  • Major complaint
  • Existing medical conditions
  • Body weight
  • Body’s response to CBD
  • Allergy or sensitivity

Standard CBD Dosage

The standard CBD dosage ranges from 10 mg to 100 mg per day. Standard doses are applicable for treating pain, infection, inflammation, arthritis, anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia, autism, autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, and other health conditions. It’s also the suggested dose for weight loss.

Here are the recommended standard CBD dosage guidelines:

  • CBD dose per day: 45 mg to 60 mg.
  • Use 15% or 20% CBD oil. One drop of the 15% CBD oil has 5 mg of CBD, and one drop of the 20% oil contains 6.7 mg of CBD.
  • For the 15% CBD oil: three drops thrice a day for a total of 45 mg of CBD daily.
  • For the 20% CBD oil: three drops thrice a day for a 60mg of CBD daily.

Staggered Dosage

Gradually increasing CBD dose or dose staggering is generally recommended for first-time users. One study points out that staggering drug dose is an effective way to reduce drug interactions, which also applies to CBD dosage.

Here are the essential benefits of CBD dose staggering:

  • Assess the initial effects or body reactions of CBD, most especially among first-time users.
  • Find out if you have allergy or sensitivity to cannabis products like Verified CBD.
  • Precisely determine the right amount of CBD oil that fits your needs.

CBD Microdosing

The Father of Microdosing is Dr. Albert Hofmann, a Swiss chemist that first synthesized LSD and lived up to 102 years old. His long life was associated with his minuscule LSD doses during the last 20 years of his life. Microdosing complies with the medical standards of starting low and doing it slow. It aims to manipulate cellular receptors to gain the desired physiologic responses or therapeutic effects with less doses.

Here are the general CBD microdosing guidelines:

  • CBD dose per day: 0.5 mg to 20 mg for stress, sleep, nausea, headache, mood disorders, PTSD, and metabolic disorders. This CBD dose is also applicable as a daily dietary supplement.
  • Use 5% CBD oil for microdose. One drop of 5% CBD oil contains 1.67 mg of CBD. Taking three drops thrice daily will give you 15 mg of CBD, which is the average recommended dose per day.
  • Make dosage adjustments according to your tolerance level.

CBD Macro-dosing

CBD macro-dosing or therapeutic dosing involves high-range CBD doses of 50 mg to 800 mg of CBD per day. It is recommended for treating seizures disorders, like epilepsy, cancer, liver disease, and other severe, life-threatening medical conditions.

CBD Oil Dosage Guidelines

Every person is different, that’s why you have to find the right CBD dose for you. The average CBD dose is 25 mg for most people. For first-time users, it’s best to start with the lowest dose and increase slowly until signs and symptoms improve. For treating medical conditions, it’s always advisable to consult your doctor before consuming CBD.

Here are the different methods of consuming CBD:

  • Oral Administration: CBD is not absorbed into the bloodstream. Expect to feel the effects or benefits of CBD about an hour after intake.
  • Sublingual Administration: It usually takes 20 minutes for the effects to kick in when taking CBD oil under the tongue.
  • Smoking CBD: The absorption of CBD via the respiratory system provides rapid relief. It’s highly recommended for those who prefer immediate relief and can’t tolerate oral and sublingual CBD administration.
  • Vaping CBD: Vaping devices are now available which are specifically designed for CBD use, ranging from e-liquid pens, portable vaporizers, to desktop units. This method of consuming CBD oil is recommended for medical patients.

Conclusion

The dose of CBD oil you need depends on your body chemistry. The effects and benefits of CBD are influenced by the manner of administration and your body’s response to a particular dose. For treatment of medical conditions, seeking a doctor’s advice is highly recommended for the best results.

Incineration of Medical Waste: An Introduction

Incineration is a thermal process that transforms medical wastes into inorganic, incombustible matter thus leading to significant reduction in waste volume and weight. The main purpose of any medical waste incinerator is to eliminate pathogens from waste and reduce the waste to ashes. However, certain types of medical wastes, such as pharmaceutical or chemical wastes, require higher temperatures for complete destruction.

Medical waste incinerators typically operate at high temperatures between 900 and 1200°C. Developing countries of Asia and Africa usually use low-cost, high-temperature incinerators of simple design for stabilization of healthcare wastes.

The most reliable and predominant medical waste incineration technology is pyrolytic incineration, also known as controlled air incineration or double-chamber incineration. The pyrolytic incinerator comprises a pyrolytic chamber and a post-combustion chamber.

Medical waste is thermally decomposed in the pyrolytic chamber through an oxygen-deficient, medium-temperature combustion process (800– 900°C), producing solid ashes and gases. The gases produced in the pyrolytic chamber are burned at high temperature (900– 1200°C) by a fuel burner in the post-combustion chamber, using an excess of air to minimize smoke and odours.

Small-scale decentralized incinerators used in hospitals, of capacity 200–1000kg/day, are operated on demand in developing countries, such as India. On the other hand, off-site regional facilities have large-scale incinerators of capacity 1–8 tonnes/day, operating continuously and equipped with automatic loading and de-ashing devices.

In recent years, mobile incinerators are getting attraction in the developing world as such units permit on-site waste treatment in hospitals and clinics, thus avoiding the need to transport infectious waste across the city.

However, the WHO policy paper of 2004 and the Stockholm Convention, has stressed the need to consider the risks associated with the incineration of healthcare waste in the form of particulate matter, heavy metals, acid gases, carbon monoxide, organic compounds, pathogens etc.

In addition, leachable organic compounds, like dioxins and heavy metals, are usually present in bottom ash residues. Due to these factors, many industrialized countries are phasing out healthcare waste incinerators and exploring technologies that do not produce any dioxins. Countries like United States, Ireland, Portugal, Canada and Germany have completely shut down or put a moratorium on medical waste incinerators.

A Handy Guide to Choose a Good Therapist

When seeking a therapist, you will come across a long list of professionals, and it will be really difficult to choose a good one. Therapists have a diverse range of qualification, skills and personalities which may or may not suit you. An effective therapy program is typically based on the relationship between therapist and client. So, what makes a good therapist? Let us explore the qualities of a good therapist to help you make the most out of your therapy sessions.

1. Strong communication skills

A good communicator exhibits confidence and assertiveness, and will make a new person feel comfortable during one-to-one session or on the phone or via email. Coupled with social skills, effective communication skills will help in creating a positive therapeutic bonding between the therapist and the client.

good-therapist

A good therapist will discuss issues in an honest, open and inquisitive manner using plain language, and will also ask for your feedback and opinion on those issues.

2. Effective listening and observation skills

A critical trait of a good therapist is to patiently and proactively listen to people. Your therapist should be skilled in deciphering your spoken words and silence, and in observing your body language. Your therapist should also have a good memory in order to remember things you told them earlier, and connect with what you are saying in the present.

An effective counsellor is not bored by conversation or have allow others to contribute to a conversation. They attentively listen to what you say and then reflect back to help you see new perspectives and draw your own conclusions.

3. Trustworthy

Mutual trust is a very important aspect of therapy and confidentiality is the cornerstone. During the sessions, you will be discussing very private and complex issues with your therapist, and policies should be in place to keep all the shared information confidential, both during and after the treatment process. Confidentiality is essential for the client to open up and feel comfortable in a safe environment without the fear of being betrayed.

Like any other relationship, building trust in therapy sessions is a time-taking process that cannot be rushed. A good therapist will operate within ethical limits, will respect your privacy and will never overstep your personal boundaries. In-session flirtation is among the top signs of a bad therapist.

4. Unbiased and non-judgmental

A good therapist is non-confrontational, unbiased and non-judgmental. Therapists demonstrate respect and will talk to you in a manner which tells they believe you. You are treated with empathy and your thoughts and feelings are not judged or made fun of.

The therapist suggests alternative ways of seeing and doing things and respects your outlook, thus acting as a source of support with whom you can share private things without any hesitation.

5. Flexible and optimistic

When it comes to therapeutic treatment, every client is unique and need a tailored approach.  A good therapist should be flexible in his approach and discuss a range of possible strategies to try in your unique circumstance.

marriage-therapy

Positivity is a critical trait of a therapist and you should feel confident that therapy will improve. Besides identifying the causes of stress, the therapist will also explore the things which can make you happy and peaceful.

6. Open to supervision

A good therapist should be willing to talk about clinical issues with a more experienced colleague in order to get the work quality evaluated. Supervision will help in getting new ideas or insights into a particular issue.

In high-risk situations, it is advisable for a good counsellor to avoid working in isolation and let access supervision to let others know they are doing with clients.

Conclusion

The qualities of a therapist play a crucial role in the successful outcome of therapy.  Every therapist may not meet each of the above-mentioned criteria, but if you are aware of the traits of a good therapist, you can decide whether you or your loved one is getting the best treatment.