Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills

The Palm Oil industry generates large quantity of wastes whose disposal is a challenging task. In the Palm Oil mill, fresh fruit bunches are sterilized after which the oil fruits can be removed from the branches. The empty fruit bunches (are left as residues, and the fruits are pressed in oil mills. The Palm Oil fruits are then pressed, and the kernel is separated from the press cake (mesocarp fibers). The palm kernels are then crushed and the kernels then transported and pressed in separate mills.

palm-biomass

In a typical palm oil mill, almost 70% of the fresh fruit bunches are turned into wastes in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells, as well as liquid effluent. These by-products can be converted to value-added products or energy to generate additional profit for the Palm Oil Industry.

Palm Kernel Shells (PKS)

Palm kernel shells (or PKS) are the shell fractions left after the nut has been removed after crushing in the Palm Oil mill. Kernel shells are a fibrous material and can be easily handled in bulk directly from the product line to the end use. Large and small shell fractions are mixed with dust-like fractions and small fibres.

Moisture content in kernel shells is low compared to other biomass residues with different sources suggesting values between 11% and 13%. Palm kernel shells contain residues of Palm Oil, which accounts for its slightly higher heating value than average lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to other residues from the industry, it is a good quality biomass fuel with uniform size distribution, easy handling, easy crushing, and limited biological activity due to low moisture content.

Press fibre and shell generated by the Palm Oil mills are traditionally used as solid fuels for steam boilers. The steam generated is used to run turbines for electricity production. These two solid fuels alone are able to generate more than enough energy to meet the energy demands of a Palm Oil mill.

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs)

In a typical Palm Oil mill, empty fruit bunches are abundantly available as fibrous material of purely biological origin. EFB contains neither chemical nor mineral additives, and depending on proper handling operations at the mill, it is free from foreign elements such as gravel, nails, wood residues, waste etc. However, it is saturated with water due to the biological growth combined with the steam sterilization at the mill. Since the moisture content in EFB is around 67%, pre-processing is necessary before EFB can be considered as a good fuel.

In contrast to shells and fibers, empty fruit bunches are usually burnt causing air pollution or returned to the plantations as mulch. Empty fruit bunches can be conveniently collected and are available for exploitation in all Palm Oil mills. Since shells and fibres are easy-to-handle, high quality fuels compared to EFB, it will be advantageous to utilize EFB for on-site energy demand while making shells and fibres available for off-site utilization which may bring more revenues as compared to burning on-site.

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Palm Oil processing also gives rise to highly polluting waste-water, known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent, which is often discarded in disposal ponds, resulting in the leaching of contaminants that pollute the groundwater and soil, and in the release of methane gas into the atmosphere. POME could be used for biogas production through anaerobic digestion. At many palm oil mills this process is already in place to meet water quality standards for industrial effluent. The gas, however, is flared off.

In a conventional Palm Oil mill, 600-700 kg of POME is generated for every ton of processed FFB. Anaerobic digestion is widely adopted in the industry as a primary treatment for POME. Liquid effluents from palm oil mills can be anaerobically converted into biogas which in turn can be used to generate power through gas turbines or gas-fired engines.

Conclusions

Most of the Biomass residues from Palm Oil Mills are either burnt in the open or disposed off in waste ponds. The Palm Oil industry, therefore, contributes significantly to global climate change by emitting carbon dioxide and methane. Like sugar mills, Palm Oil mills have traditionally been designed to cover their own energy needs (process heat and electricity) by utilizing low pressure boilers and back pressure turbo-generators. Efficient energy conversion technologies, especially thermal systems for crop residues, that can utilize all Palm Oil residues, including EFBs, are currently available.

In the Palm Oil value chain there is an overall surplus of by-products and their utilization rate is negligible, especially in the case of POME and EFBs. For other mill by-products the efficiency of the application can be increased. Presently, shells and fibers are used for in-house energy generation in mills but empty fruit bunches is either used for mulching or dumped recklessly. Palm Oil industry has the potential of generating large amounts of electricity for captive consumption as well as export of surplus power to the public grid.

Trends in Global Waste to Energy Market

Waste-to-Energy is the use of modern combustion and biochemical technologies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban wastes. These new technologies can reduce the volume of the original waste by 90%, depending upon composition and use of outputs. The main categories of waste-to-energy technologies are physical technologies, which process waste to make it more useful as fuel; thermal technologies, which can yield heat, fuel oil, or syngas from both organic and inorganic wastes; and biological technologies, in which bacterial fermentation is used to digest organic wastes to yield fuel.

WTE_Market

The global market for waste-to-energy technologies was valued at US$6.2bn in 2012 which is  forecasted to increase to US$29.2bn by 2022. While the biological WTE segment is expected to grow more rapidly from US$1.4bn in 2008 to approximately US$2.5bn in 2014, the thermal WTE segment is estimated to constitute the vast bulk of the entire industry’s worth. This segment was valued at US$18.5bn in 2008 and is forecasted to expand to US$23.7bn in 2014.

The global market for waste to energy technologies has shown substantial growth over the last five years, increasing from $4.83 billion in 2006, to $7.08 billion in 2010 with continued market growth through the global economic downturn. Over the coming decade, growth trends are expected to continue, led by expansion in the US, European, Chinese, and Indian markets.

By 2021, based on continued growth in Asian markets combined with the maturation of European waste management regulations and European and US climate mitigation strategies, the annual global market for waste to energy technologies will exceed $27 billion, for all technologies combined.

Asia-Pacific’s waste-to-energy market will post substantial growth by 2015, as more countries view the technology as a sustainable alternative to landfills for disposing waste while generating clean energy. In its new report, Frost & Sullivan said the industry could grow at a compound annual rate of 6.7 percent for thermal waste-to-energy and 9.7 percent for biological waste-to-energy from 2008 to 2015.

The WTE market in Europe is forecasted to expand at an exponential rate and will continue to do so for at least the next 10 years. The continent’s WTE capacity is projected to increase by around 13 million tonnes, with almost 100 new WTE facilities to come online by 2012. In 2008, the WTE market in Europe consisted of approximately 250 players due in large to the use of bulky and expensive centralized WTE facilities, scattered throughout Western Europe.

Municipal Waste Management in Poland

Municipal waste management in Poland has changed dramatically since the early ’90s when, as part of Poland’s privatisation program, municipal authorities were freed of their waste management obligations. The combined Polish recycling rate for dry recyclables and organic waste has increased from 5% in 2004 to 21% in 2010, according to a Copenhagen Resource Institute (CRI) study Municipal Waste Management in Poland (2013). Another source provides similar, corroborating statistics, putting the dry recycling rate in Poland at 14% and the composting rate at 7%.

waste-dump-warsaw

The latest Eurostat data (for 2011) shows that the upward trend continuing, with the total recycled and composted reaching 28%. That is rapid rate of improvement, but leaves Poland well below the latest EU-27 average of 40% (25% recycled and 15% composted) – so what prospect is there of Poland reaching the EU’s mandatory 50% target by 2020?

Responsibility for waste disposal shifted to householders, who were left to individually contract any waste collection company of their choice. In the hard economic climate a ‘cheaper-the-better’ mentality prevailed, which did little to encourage sustainable practices. There wasn’t even an obligation on householders even to sign up for waste collection.

Landfilling was – and remains – the most common way of handling waste, but accompanying reporting and tracking methods were inadequate. Statistically, quantities of waste produced were usually larger than those collected, with the missing tonnages usually being dumped in forests or burned in domestic boilers to avoid waste disposal costs. As a result, waste management became largely uncontrolled, with a 2011 report concluding that ‘’waste management is one of the most badly neglected and at the same time one of the most urgent environmental issues for Poland.’’

Waste Management Legislation

Even after joining the EU in 2005, Poland didn’t rush to introduce reforms to improve practices and help to meet recycling targets. Only recently has Poland introduced several pieces of new waste related legislation, including:

  • Act on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities (2012);
  • Act on Waste (2012); and
  • Act on management of packaging and packaging waste (2013).

The first of these was revolutionary in that it gave responsibility for municipal waste collection and disposal back to municipalities. Now they are required to organise garbage collection and the separate collection of biodegradable waste and recyclable materials such as paper, metal, glass and plastic. It is expected that the new law will improve waste management control measures on a local level and greatly reduce the illegal dumping and trash burning.

The Act on Waste helps tackle the previous ‘free for all’ amongst collectors – it obliges waste handlers to act in a manner consistent with waste management principles and plans adopted at national level (by the Council of Ministers), regional level (Voivodeship) and local level (Municipality).

Poland has also this year adopted a new National Waste Management Plan, which states that an essential step towards improving the recycling rate in Poland is to increase landfill fees for recyclable, compostable or recoverable material. If acted upon, this could greatly increase the incentive to divert important municipal waste streams from landfill. The Polish market is clearly responsive to cost: in 2008 after landfill tax was significantly raised, there was a substantial reduction in waste being landfilled.

Declaration of bin-dependence

Although Polish citizens have always had to pay directly for waste collection, the new legislation has made some substantial changes to the payment system. There are now three different calculation methods. Each household is subject to a standard fee, which is then adjusted to reflect either:

  • The number of people living in a household;
  • The number of square metres covered by the property; or
  • The number of cubic metres of water used by the household per month.

The first of these options seems to be the most reasonable and has proven the most popular.

Municipalities are left to determine the standard collection fee, which as a result varies from region to region. Some municipalities charge at little as 3 Polish Zloty (around £0.56) per household, per person, per month, while some charge 20 Zloty (around £3.75).

The standard charge is also affected by a declaration made by the householder regarding waste segregation. If a property owner declares that they have separated out recyclable materials then they pay considerably lower fees. In some municipalities, this could be as low as 50% of the usual charge. Only those who declare that they don’t want to recycle pay full price. It’s rare that people do so: who would pick the most expensive option?

The problem is that some householders declare that they recycle their waste while in reality they don’t. Unfortunately, abusing the system is easy to get away with, especially since the new scheme is still in its early stages and is not yet stable. Monitoring recycling participation in order to crack down on such abuses of the system represents quite a challenging task.

Future Perspectives

Transformation periods are always hard and it is common that they bring misunderstanding and chaos. It isn’t surprising that there are problems with the new system which require ironing out, and the new legislation is nevertheless welcome. However, there is still much work to be done to provide sufficient and sustainable waste management in Poland. This will include such measures as educating the population, improving waste separation at source and securing waste treatment capacity.

Perhaps most importantly, Poland needs to take immediate action to develop its municipal waste treatment capacity across the board. If the 2020 recycling target is to be met, the country will require material recovery facilities, anaerobic digestion and in vessel composting sites, and household waste and recycling centres; and if more waste is to be diverted from landfill it will also need energy from waste (EfW) incinerators and mechanical biological treatment facilities.

According to Eurostat, only 1% of waste in Poland was incinerated in 2011. It has been confirmed so far that an EfW plant will be developed in each of Poland’s 11 biggest cities. Fortunately for Poland, the development of waste treatment installations is quite generously funded by the EU, which covers up to 80% of the total cost: EU subsidy agreements have already been signed for three of the planned EfW plants. The remaining cost will be covered by central, regional and local government.

The CRI paper presents three different scenarios for the future recycling rate in Poland. One of them is very optimistic and predicts that Poland has a chance to meet the 2020 recycling requirements, but each is based simply on a regression analysis of recent trends, rather than an analysis of the likely impact of recent and planned policy measures. What it does make clear, though, is that if Poland continues to progress as it has since 2006, it will reach the 2020 target. How many EU countries can claim that?

Note: The article is being republished with the kind permission of our collaborative partner Isonomia. The original version of the article can be found at this link.

Behavioral Drivers Behind Food Wastes

By 2075, the United Nations estimates the global population will peak at 9.5 billion, an extra 3 billion mouths to feed by the end of the century. Meanwhile, while we produce about four billion tonnes of food annually, it is estimated that 30-50% of this never reaches our plates. Of the food that does reach us, some western societies throw away up to a third of all food purchased. This has enormous implications for the global environment, from wasting the water used to grow the food to adverse effects on climate, land and biodiversity.

food-waste-behavior

The drivers behind the phenomenal levels of food waste are complex and include public behavior, food pricing, logistical and storage issues. However, given the significant level of waste that happens within the households of societies like the UK and US, it is useful and informative to consider those behaviours that drive this level of waste.

The quality of data around food waste, as with much of waste data, has historically been poor. To this end, WRAP commissioned groundbreaking research in the UK in 2006/7 to act as a baseline to their Love Food Hate Waste campaign. This came up with the alarming statistic that 1/3 of food bought by a UK household was thrown away. Until this time, there had been no comprehensive research, either by food manufacturers, retailers or interest groups, suggesting the importance of government, or some other dis-interested party, taking a lead on the issue.

Back to Basics

There may be a link between the amount of time spent preparing food, and the skill and effort that goes into this, and the amount of food waste produced. This has led to a loss of confidence in the kitchen, with individuals losing basic skills that allow them to cook with leftovers, understand food labeling, including Best Before and Use By, even basic storing. WRAP had found little evidence of best practice storage advice so carried out the research themselves – leading the (surprising for many) conclusion that fruit such as apples and pears are best stored in the fridge wrapped in a plastic cover.

However, this has masked a larger trend of less time spent in the kitchen, due to demographic changes. This of course begs the question – how should we use this when trying to reduce food waste? Should we encourage people to cook from scratch as a principle?

Although waste prevention and recycling are clearly separated within the waste hierarchy, there are apparent links between the two when considering food waste. There is an urgent need for legislation to enforce separate food waste collections, not only to ensure it was diverted to anaerobic digestion or composting, but also as it led to greater self awareness around food waste. WRAP research has clearly showed a fall in food waste when separate food waste collections were introduced.

Role of Packaging

Historically, packaging has always been a high priority to the public when asked about priorities for reducing waste. However, as awareness of food waste has grown, a more nuanced position has developed among waste managers. While excess packaging is clearly undesirable, and, within the UK for instance, the Courtauld Commitment  has helped reduced grocery packaging by 2.9 million tonnes of waste so far, there is a realization of the importance of food packaging in preserving food and hence reducing food waste.

food-packaging

Making food easily accessible and affordable by many, it could be argued, is one of the crowning achievements of our age. Over the last century, the proportion of household income that is spent on food has plummeted, and there is a direct link to malnutrition and food prices, particularly for children. But does cheap food mean that it is less valued and hence greater wastage? Is the answer expensive food? The evidence from WRAP in the UK is that food waste is still a serious economic issue for households, and underlining the economic case for reducing food waste a major incentive for households, especially as food prices are not entering an era of increase and instability, providing added economic urgency

Political Persuasions

Different political persuasions often differ in the approaches they take to changing behaviours and food waste is no different. In the UK, the Courtauld Commitment is a voluntary agreement aimed at encouraging major retailers to take responsibility mainly for packaging, later growing to encompass food waste, voluntary and so far has seen a 21% reduction in food waste post-consumer.

Meanwhile Wales (in the UK) effectively banned food waste from landfill. Scotland has ensured that businesses make food waste available for separate collection – again it’s only once you see it, you can manage it. Campaigns like the UK’s Love Food Hate Waste have been successful but measuring food waste prevention, as with all waste prevention, is notoriously difficult. But, people are now widely aware of food waste as an issue – we even see celebrity chefs actively talking about food waste reduction and recipes involving leftovers or food that is about to go off.

Food-Waste-UK

There is clearly a balance between food waste and food safety, with a commitment to reducing food waste throughout the retail and catering world, not just at home. By engaging environmental health officers to help deliver this, a potentially conflicting message can be delivered in a nuanced and balanced way. Indeed, environmental health officers in Scotland will be responsible for ensuring that Scottish food businesses present their food waste for separate collection.

Role of Communication

It is worth considering how the message should be communicated, and by whom. The community sector are more trusted by the public than government and the private sector are more effective at imparting personal, deeply held beliefs – the sort of beliefs that need to change if we are to see long term changes in attitudes towards consumption and hence waste production.

Furthermore, communications can engage wider audiences that hold an interest in reducing food waste that is perhaps not primarily environmental. The health and economic benefits of issues and behaviours that also result in food waste prevention may be the prevalent message that fits with a particular audience. So whilst the main aim of a training session might be food waste prevention, this is may not be the external message. And this has wider implications for waste prevention, and how we engage audiences around it.

Municipal authorities tasked with waste prevention will need to engage with new groups, in new ways. They will have to consider approaches previously considered to be beyond their powers to engage new audiences – should they be partnering with public health authorities with an interest in nutrition, or social housing providers that are focused on financial inclusion.

Should waste prevention even be a discipline in itself? After all, across material streams it is a motley assortment of behaviours with different drivers. Furthermore, with the knots that one can tie oneself in trying to measure waste that doesn’t get generated, – therefore doesn’t exist – should we integrate waste prevention in to other socio-economic programmes and position it as an “added benefit” to them?

Note: The article is being republished with the permission of our collaborative partner be Waste Wise. The unabridged version can be found at this link. Special thanks to the author Mike Webster.

Understanding Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Pharmaceutical Waste

For those not familiar with the field of health and medicine, the term non-hazardous pharmaceutical waste could trick you into thinking this is not dangerous. However, it has its own negative effects on the environment. But before we go further, let us understand what pharmaceutical waste is and then the difference between hazardous pharmaceutical waste and the non-hazardous type:

Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Pharmaceutical Waste

What is Pharmaceutical Waste?

When it comes to the health and medical sector, refuse generated from such organizations cannot be disposed of the same way you would collect refuse from a fast-food joint. This is because they deal with highly toxic materials in their day-to-day activities. It can range from collected blood samples, used syringes, waste from surgeries, and so on. Visit here to learn how inadequate disposal methods could cause harm.

Luckily, the pharmaceutical field doesn’t have to worry about most of the above waste types. Those are commonly found in hospitals. Since a pharmacist is responsible for handling drugs, pharmaceutical waste is mostly made up of expired or contaminated and unused drugs.

But they could also include home and personal care products that contain specific chemicals. We are sure by now you can see how unethical it would be to simply drop this waste in a refuse bin. This is why certain measures are taken to properly dispose them. There are two types of pharmaceutical wastes, hazardous and non-hazardous. We are going to briefly look into each of them below.

Hazardous Pharmaceutical Waste

It is pretty obvious that since we are having this conversation, not all pharmaceutical waste can be moderately harmless for the environment. Therefore, waste is categorized into hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. The RCRA is responsible for dictating how we categorize them.

For waste from a pharmacy to be tagged as hazardous there will be certain properties it contains that make it extremely dangerous to humans and the environment at large. Refuse products in this category are known to be ignitable, corrosive, toxic, and reactive. For better understanding, they are categorized into P, U, K categories, we would explain them below.

1. P class drugs

Drugs that fall into this class are known to be very toxic. It could be a pharmaceutical drug chemical or pesticide and you would often find that they contain arsenic, arsenic trioxide, epinephrine, and cyanide salts.

2. U class drugs

Like the “p class drugs”, U class drugs are very toxic. It could be pharmaceutical, pesticide, or chemical. Waste in this category often contains acetone, acetyl chloride, and azaserine.

3. K class drugs

This type of waste unlike the others are not generated after production, rather they are generated during the manufacturing process.

expired-medicines-management

Pharmaceutical industry can change its practices to manage pharmaceuticals in a more ecofriendly manner.

Non-Hazardous Pharmaceutical Waste

As we mentioned in our introduction, because it is called non-hazardous pharmaceutical waste, do not be deceived into thinking they aren’t dangerous if disposed improperly. So long as it has to do with toxic chemicals used in the production of drugs, it must be handled with care.

It is important to note that wastes that fall into this category are also governed by the resource conservation and recovery act (RCRA). This act creates a framework for the proper disposal of both hazardous and non-hazardous waste. However, because they’re less toxic than waste that falls into the hazardous class, they are not affected by heavy regulation. But this doesn’t mean that they can be disposed of like regular refuse from home. You still need to enlist the help of professionals for this task.

How to Properly Store and Dispose Pharmaceutical Waste?

Now that we have covered these two waste types, let us look at how you can properly dispose them. We will focus on all types of pharmaceutical waste and not just the non-hazardous type. When it comes to pharmaceutical waste disposal in general, your best bet to do things professionally if you do not already have trained personnel on-site is to employ the use of waste disposal companies. The reason we suggest using companies is that they leave no room for error.

pharmaceuticals-impact-environment

You should also take proper storage of your pharmaceutical waste seriously. This is because it can be dangerous if it gets tampered with. Therefore, it should be at a secured site. Proper storage would also prevent leakage of waste into the environment. Consider using clinical waste bags. They are easy to distinguish from regular trash because of their very noticeable blue color.

You should opt for cytotoxic and cytostatic bags when making a choice on what waste bag to store your waste. It is also advisable to have a separate trash can in a secure location for your pharmaceutical waste.

Final Thoughts

Improper disposal of pharmaceutical waste and regular waste in general is having widespread negative effects on the environment. Most are washed into the ocean leading to deaths and depletion of marine life. It is our responsibility to ensure that these effects are not only mitigated but all together avoided.

7 Steps to Hiring a Junk Removal Company

Springtime is here, which means it is time to open the doors and windows and clean out your home. It might seem like junk removal is as simple as calling up the nearest trash company, but that is not always the case. While you may feel you can do it all by yourself, at times, it’s good to accept that we need the pros to get the work done in the right way. This checklist will help you determine if and how you can hire a junk removal company without any hassle whatsoever.

hiring a junk removal company

1. Make Sure You Need A Junk Removal Service

Before you start calling junk removal companies, you should ensure that you need one. If there is something of value that you no longer want or need, try to sell it. Otherwise, it’s usually best to hire a junk removal service if your items are too big or bulky for you to get rid of yourself.

2. Find a Company

You can ask friends, family, or coworkers for recommendations or search online for your local junk removal companies. Be sure to call and get a quote for their specific services. Keep in mind that some companies have multiple fees, so be prepared with all of your questions. Not every junk removal company offers trash dumpsters and carts—if you need one of these (or other equipment), make sure they will provide it before you hire them.

3. Research Contractors

Your final step is to research your potential junk removal contractors. You may want to read online reviews and call several providers before deciding. While you don’t want to get carried away, you must consider all aspects of each provider, especially eco-friendliness of the services offered.

Of course, pricing will be one of your essential considerations, but in general, it is recommended that you question at least three different providers before choosing one for business. It can often help if you have an idea of how much junk removal costs beforehand to prepare for any additional expenses such as weight surcharges or mileage costs, and so on.

4. Enquire If They’re Insured

Imagine a scenario where the contractors damage something or someone in your home in the process of junk removal? Will you get a refund or replacement of your items? Accidents happen all the time, but if the company offers insurance, you will know you’re covered if anything goes wrong. So, don’t settle for a company that is not insured.

5. Enquire How They Dispose of the Junk

Do you ever wonder how these experts dispose of the items from the different collection points after they haul them away? Some pick-up services add to the landfills by dumping everything in them. If you care for your environment, this is not the way to do it. Take care of your environment by settling for a company that separates the items into donations, reusables, and non-recyclables.

benefits of eco-friendly junk removal

6. Narrow Down Your Choices

As you’re going through your list of top contenders, think about how you will choose which company is best for you. Each company may have different services and unique aspects that set them apart. Here are some questions to ask when considering which company fits your needs:

  • How much experience do they have?
  • How will they manage your items during pick-up?
  • What policies do they have in place if damage occurs during the removal? Are they insured?
  • Can you request references from them or a customer?
  • Does their price range meet your budget requirements?

7.  Reach out to them and get quotes

While it may be tempting, don’t simply call several junk removal companies, tell them about your project, and start comparing quotes. Make sure you take each step for your job search to run smoothly.

skip bins

Start by writing an email describing your project in detail; send it off and wait for responses (if necessary, follow up with a phone call). Once you’ve received a few prices from local junk removal companies, compare them by cost and ask around on social media or online forums like Yelp or Angie’s List. Get as much information as possible before making your final decision.

Getting rid of unwanted items takes time and energy. Call or search online for reputable junk haulers in your area, make sure they will remove whatever you want to be removed, set up an appointment that fits into their schedule, and then let them do their job. You can focus on what’s important while they take care of all of your unwanted items. That’s what we call hiring smart! If you have a junk removal company on your side, you can spend less time thinking about how much junk you have and more time focusing on living your life.

Benefits of Eco-Friendly Junk Removal Services in 2022

With only nine years until the effects of climate change become irreversible, it is more important than ever that we are all doing as much as we can to look after our planet. One way to make a positive impact on the environment is to sign up with an eco-friendly junk removal service.

What is eco-friendly junk removal?

The goal of eco-friendly junk removal is to dispose of waste in an ecologically responsible way. This can mean different things depending on what service you choose to sign up with.

Some services will try to rehome goods such as unwanted clothing, furniture, and toys, whereas others, like J Dickinson and Sons, aim to recycle all waste in a safe and environmentally friendly way.

benefits of eco-friendly junk removal

Why should I use an eco-friendly junk removal service?

There are a whole host of reasons why you should consider using a reliable junk removal service, such as Stand Up Guys Junk Removal. First of all, it is a way of disposing of waste that is beneficial to the environment. It reduces the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. It is a preventative measure against global warming and that alone should sell the service to you.

Secondly, if your unwanted goods are being reused and donated to someone who may really value them, this feels morally better than just throwing things away. Instead, you are doing something good for someone else as well as doing something that will benefit the planet.

What to do in the absence of eco-friendly junk removal service

Eco-friendly junk removal does not have to be done via a service. You can make a big difference yourself with your waste.

Instead of throwing out old clothes that you no longer use, fill up a bag and take it down to your local charity shop. The same can be done with children’s toys, DVDs, books, bedding, and more.

If you have unwanted furniture items, instead of taking them to a dump or leaving them in a skip, try selling them at a reasonable price instead. Gumtree and Facebook Marketplace are excellent starting points if you are looking to sell any unwanted goods.

This puts some money into your pocket, and is a much more environmentally friendly way to dispose of something than simply throwing it away.

skip bins

You can also start upcycling your waste. Keep a space in your shed for scrap wood and metal, as you never know when it might come in handy. Start DIY projects and turn old items into something new and exciting.

A slightly shabby dining table can be sanded down, repainted and used outside. Use unwanted pots, pans, or even sinks as planters in your garden. With upcycling, you can go as far as your imagination takes you.

Conclusion

Eco junk removal is an excellent way to care for people and the planet. Donating or selling unwanted items benefits both yourself and others. Collection services are excellent as you know you have disposed of your goods in an environmentally responsible way. Upcycling allows your creative spirit to run free. There really is no reason not to get involved in eco-friendly junk removal this year.

Recycling of EPS Foam Packaging

Municipalities and organisations around the world are facing a growing problem in disposal and recycling of EPS foam packaging and products. EPS foam (Encapsulated Poly-Styrene) packaging is a highly popular plastic packaging material which finds wide application in packaging of food items, electronic goods, electrical appliances, furniture etc due to its excellent insulating and protective properties. EPS foam (also known as polystyrene) is also used to make useful products such as disposable cups, trays, cutlery, cartons, cases etc. However, being large and bulky, polystyrene take up significant space in rubbish bins which means that bins becomes full more quickly and therefore needs to be emptied more often.

eps-foam-recycling

Polystyrene is lightweight compared to its volume so it occupies lots of precious landfill space and can be blown around and cause a nuisance in the surrounding areas. Although some companies have a recycling policy, most of the polystyrene still find its way into landfill sites around the world.

Environmental Hazards of EPS Foam

While it is estimated that EPS foam products accounts for less than 1% of the total weight of landfill materials, the fraction of landfill space it takes up is much higher considering that it is very lightweight.  Furthermore, it is essentially non-biodegradable, taking hundreds perhaps thousands of years to decompose.

Even when already disposed of in landfills, polystyrene can easily be carried by the wind and litter the streets or end up polluting water bodies. When EPS foam breaks apart, the small polystyrene components can be eaten by marine organisms which can cause choking or intestinal blockage.

Polystyrene can also be consumed by fishes once it breaks down in the ocean.  Marine animals higher up the food chain could eat the fishes that have consumed EPS, thus concentrating the contaminant.  It could be a potential health hazard for us humans who are on top of the food chain considering that styrene, the plastic monomer used in manufacturing EPS has been classified by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible human carcinogen.

Styrene is derived from either petroleum or natural gas, both of which are non-renewable and are rapidly being depleted, creating environmental sustainability problems for EPS.

Trends in EPS Foam Recycling

Although the Alliance of Foam Packaging Recyclers have reported that the recycling rate for post-consumer and post-commercial EPS in the United States have risen to 28% in 2010 from around 20% in 2008, this value is still lower than most solid wastes.  According to USEPA, auto batteries, steel cans and glass containers have recycle rates of 96.2%, 70.6% and 34.2% respectively.

Because it is bulky, EPS foam takes up storage space and costs more to transport and yet yields only a small amount of polystyrene for re-use or remolding (infact, polystyrene accounts for only 2% of the volume of uncompacted EPS foams). This provides little incentive for recyclers to consider EPS recycling.

Products that have been used to hold or store food should be thoroughly cleaned for hygienic reasons, thus compounding the costs.  For the same reasons, these products cannot be recycled to produce the same food containers but rather are used for non-food plastic products.  The manufacture of food containers, therefore, always requires new polystyrene.  At present, it is more economical to produce new EPS foam products than to recycle it, and manufacturers would rather have the higher quality of fresh polystyrene over the recycled one.

The cost of transporting bulky polystyrene waste discourages recyclers from recycling it.  Organizations that receive a large amount of EPS foam (especially in packaging) can invest in a compactor that will reduce the volume of the products. Recyclers will pay more for the compacted product so the investment can be recovered relatively easier.

There are also breakthroughs in studies concerning EPS recycling although most of these are still in the research or pilot stage.  Several studies have found that the bacteria Pseudomonas putida is able to convert polystyrene to a more biodegradable plastic.  The process of polystyrene depolymerization – converting polystyrene back to its styrene monomer – is also gaining ground.

Biogas from Agricultural Wastes

The main problem with anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes is that most of the agricultural residues are lignocellulosic with low nitrogen content. To obtain biogas from agricultural wastes, pre-treatment methods like size reduction, electron irradiation, heat treatment, enzymatic action etc are necessary. For optimizing the C/N ratio of agricultural residues, co-digestion with sewage sludge, animal manure or poultry litter is recommended.

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Types of Agricultural Wastes

Several organic wastes from plants and animals have been exploited for biogas production as reported in the literature. Plant materials include agricultural crops such as sugar cane, cassava, corn etc, agricultural residues like rice straw, cassava rhizome, corn cobs etc, wood and wood residues (saw dust, pulp wastes, and paper mill waste)

Others include molasses and bagasse from sugar refineries, waste streams such as rice husk from rice mills and residues from palm oil extraction and municipal solid wastes, etc. However, plant materials such as crop residues are more difficult to digest than animal wastes (manures) because of difficulty in achieving hydrolysis of cellulosic and lignocellulosic constituents.

Codigestion of Crop Wastes

Crop residues can be digested either alone or in co-digestion with other materials, employing either wet or dry processes. In the agricultural sector one possible solution to processing crop biomass is co-digested together with animal manures, the largest agricultural waste stream.

In addition to the production of renewable energy, controlled anaerobic digestion of animal manures reduces emissions of greenhouse gases, nitrogen and odour from manure management, and intensifies the recycling of nutrients within agriculture.

In co-digestion of plant material and manures, manures provide buffering capacity and a wide range of nutrients, while the addition of plant material with high carbon content balances the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the feedstock, thereby decreasing the risk of ammonia inhibition.

The gas production per digester volume can be increased by operating the digesters at a higher solids concentration. Batch high solids reactors, characterized by lower investment costs than those of continuously fed processes, but with comparable operational costs, are currently applied in the agricultural sector to a limited extent.

Codigestion offers good opportunity to farmers to treat their own waste together with other organic substrates. As a result, farmers can treat their own residues properly and also generate additional revenues by treating and managing organic waste from other sources and by selling and/or using the products viz heat, electrical power and stabilised biofertiliser.

Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires

Pyrolysis of scrap tires offers an environmentally and economically attractive method for transforming waste tires into useful products, heat and electrical energy. Pyrolysis refers to the thermal decomposition of scrap tires either in the absence or lack of oxygen. The principal feedstocks for pyrolysis are pre-treated car, bus or truck tire chips. Scrap tires are an excellent fuel because of their high calorific value which is comparable to that of coal and crude oil. The heating value of an average size passenger tire is between 30 – 34MJ/kg.

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Pyrolysis is the most recommended alternative for the thermochemical treatment of waste tires and extensively used for conversion of carbonaceous materials in Europe and the Asia-Pacific. Pyrolysis is a two-phase treatment which uses thermal decomposition to heat the rubber in the absence of oxygen to break it into its constituent parts, e.g., pyrolysis oil (or bio oil), synthetic gas and char. Cracking and post-cracking take place progressively as the material is heated to 450-500°C and above.

Process Description

The pyrolysis method for scrap tires recycling involves heating whole or halved or shredded tires in a reactor containing an oxygen free atmosphere and a heat source. In the reactor, the rubber is softened after which the rubber polymers disintegrate into smaller molecules which eventually vaporize and exit from the reactor. These vapors can be burned directly to produce power or condensed into an oily type liquid, called pyrolysis oil or bio oil.

Some molecules are too small to condense and remain as a gas which can be burned as fuel. The minerals that were part of the tire, about 40% by weight, are removed as a solid. When performed well a tire pyrolysis process is a very clean operation and has nearly no emissions or waste.

The heating rate of tire is an important parameter affecting the reaction time, product yield, product quality and energy requirement of the waste tire pyrolysis process. If the temperature is maintained at around 450oC the main product is liquid which could be a mixture of hydrocarbon depending on the initial composition of waste material. At temperature above 700oC, synthetic gas (also known as syngas), a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, becomes the primary product due to further cracking of the liquids.

Schematic for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires

Schematic for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires

The nature of the feedstock and process conditions defines the properties of the gas, liquid and solid products. For example, whole tires contain fibers and steel while shredded tires have most of the steel and sometimes most of the fiber removed.

Processes can be either batch or continuous. The energy required for thermal decomposition of the scrap tires can be in the form of directly-fired fuel, electrical induction and or by microwaves (like a microwave oven). A catalyst may also be required to accelerate the pyrolysis process.

Useful Products

The high acceptance of pyrolysis for the treatment of scrap tires is due to the fact that the derived oils and syngas can be used as biofuels or as feedstock for refining crude oil or chemical products. The pyrolysis oil (or bio oil) has higher calorific value, low ash, low residual carbon and low sulphur content.

The use of pyrolysis oil in cement kilns, paper mills, power plants, industrial furnaces, foundries and other industries is one of the best uses of scrap tires.  Pyrolysis of scrap tyres produces oil that can be used as liquid fuels for industrial furnaces, foundries and boilers in power plants due to their higher calorific value, low ash, residual carbon and sulphur content.

The solid residue, called char, contains carbon black, and inorganic matter. It contains carbon black and the mineral matter initially present in the tire. This solid char may be used as reinforcement in the rubber industry, as activated carbon or as smokeless fuel.