Transporting biomass fuel to a power plant is an important aspect of any biomass energy project. Because a number of low moisture fuels can be readily collected and transported to a centralized biomass plant location or aggregated to enhance project size, this opportunity should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
It will be a good proposition to develop biomass energy plants at the location where the bulk of the agricultural waste stream is generated, without bearing the additional cost of transporting waste streams. Effective capture and use of thermal energy at the site for hot water, steam, and even chilled water requirements raises the energy efficiency of the project, thereby improving the value of the waste-to-energy project.
The hauling distance for biomass transportation to the processing plant.
Transportation infrastructure available between the points of biomass dispatch and processing plant
Transportation is primarily concerned with loading and unloading operation and transferring biomass from pre-processing sites to the main processing plant or biorefinery. Truck transport and for a few cases train transport may be the only modes of transport. Barge and pipeline transport and often train transport involve truck transport. Trucks interface with trains at loading and unloading facilities of a depot or processing facility. Barge and pipeline require interfacing with train and/or truck transport at major facilities either on land or at the shores.
Physical form and quality of biomass has the greatest influence on the selection of handling equipment for the lowest delivered cost possible. A higher bulk density will allow more mass of material to be transported per unit distance. Truck transport is generally well developed, is usually cheapest mode of transport but it becomes expensive as travel distance increases. Pipeline biomass transport is the least known technology and may prove to be the cheapest and safest mode of transport in the near future.
Transportation costs of low-density and high-moisture agricultural residues are a major constraint to their use as an energy source. As a rule of thumb, transportation distances beyond a 25–50- km radius (depending on local infrastructure) are uneconomical. For long distances, agricultural residues could be compressed as bales or briquettes in the field, rendering transport to the site of use a viable option.
Greater use of biomass and larger scale conversion systems demand larger scale feedstock handling and delivery infrastructure. To accommodate expansion in feedstock collection and transportation, production centres can be established where smaller quantities of biomass are consolidated, stored, and transferred to long-distance transportation systems, in much the same way that transfer stations are used in municipal waste handling. Preprocessing equipment may be used to densify biomass, increasing truck payloads and reducing transportation costs over longer haul distances.
Electric vehicles or EVs are still a relatively new concept in the automotive industry, but as they’re becoming more mainstream, they’re also becoming more affordable. Due to the greater variety of options, it’s much easier to find an EV that suits your needs and budget, making EVs more accessible than ever before.
This is the most obvious advantage of driving an electric car. Conventional vehicles generate exhaust emissions that have harmful effects on the environment. Switching to EVs would reduce pollution and improve air quality in cities.
Although they still need to be charged from the grid, their carbon footprint is between 17 and 30% lower than that of conventional cars, and if you want to reduce it even further, you can get electricity from renewable sources through your electricity provider or charge it using a solar PV system.
They’re Cheaper in the Long-Run
Before electric cars become mainstream, there were only a few manufacturers you could buy from, but these days there are a lot more options and, as we already mentioned in the introduction, this has resulted in better technology at a lower cost. Plus, there are usually discounts and other incentives that further reduce their price. Insurance can also be more expensive, but not by a lot, and you can use online comparison tools to find the best car insurance quotes.
For drivers looking for a more cost-effective and efficient method of transportation, EVs offer great long-term value and can be a terrific investment. Their prices are already comparable to those of diesel and petrol automobiles, but their long-term ownership costs are far lower. Because of tax breaks, special government grants, improved fuel efficiency, lower maintenance requirements, and lower electricity costs, you can save a lot of money by switching to an electric car.
It’s a common misconception that conventional cars provide better performance. In reality, electric vehicles are superior in terms of power, torque, and acceleration. The batteries are installed in the chassis, which gives them a lower center of gravity, making them easier to maneuver as well.
It’s true that because of limited battery capacity, combustion engines still perform better on the track over long distances, but technology continues to advance, so this might change soon. Plus, this is a difference that’s not likely to cause inconveniences outside a racetrack.
First of all, electric vehicles have to pass the same safety tests as their gasoline and diesel-powered counterparts.
They’re easier to maneuver because of the lower center of gravity, and they are fitted with the newest safety technologies like cruise control, sensors, and monitoring systems.
Upon impact, the airbags will deploy, and the battery’s electrical supply will be cut off. Electric vehicles must be “intrinsically safe,” which means that as soon as a problem is detected in the battery, the power flow is interrupted to prevent further damage. In the event of an accident, the battery is isolated from the other high-voltage components within milliseconds.
Aside from that, they do not use flammable fuel, which can result in explosions and severe injuries.
Until 2018, the maritime industry did not have a climate plan. While this may seem surprising, shipping tends to stay quiet about the environmental impacts of a global economy. Additionally, unlike other carbon-intensive sectors, it tends to quietly sail along unnoticed by consumers. It was not included in the Paris Agreement in 2016 and was not held accountable for its contribution to increased greenhouse gas emissions.
The International Maritime Organization laid out plans to cut emissions in half by 2050, an ambitious goal by one of the world’s main polluters. One of the main strategies to reduce CO2 emissions is to transition to more efficient fuel types. Most large shipping vessels operate with heavy fuel oil, which is rich in sulfur and extremely polluting. The International Maritime Organization is seeking to replace heavy fuel oil in 60,000 shipping vessels.
However, consumer awareness surrounding the environmental cost of international shipping, coupled with innovative technology, may reduce the amount of pollution produced. The most likely solutions to reduce emissions from the maritime industry include transitioning to a more low-carbon fuel source, changing transport speeds, adopting sustainable shipping waste disposal strategies, transitioning to renewable energy and optimizing travel routes.
The Price of International Shipping
Shipping emissions are expected to grow exponentially between now and 2050. International shipping accounts for the majority of industrial pollution. Maritime regulations are significantly behind those for other carbon-intensive industries. It can be legally complicated to assign accountability to certain countries, especially in international waters. A handful of mega-ships can have the same level of greenhouse gas emissions as millions of cars, accounting for an incalculable portion of air and water pollution.
Our economy is global. When you look at the tags on your furniture, appliances, clothes and electronics, you may see dozens of countries around the world. Even our food, including perishable items like avocados and lettuce, are shipped internationally. Fresh produce can be shipped thousands of miles without spoiling using different refrigeration systems, such as air compressor technology. While these technologies make it easier to transport food, they come with a high-carbon impact. However, there are energy-efficient solutions to reduce carbon emissions in the shipping industry.
Low-carbon technology is available in the shipping industry, but how it works in practice may be a different story. For example, switching from a high sulfur fuel oil to a low carbon option may have the greatest impact on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Lowering sulfur oxide emissions is key to reducing the effects of international shipping.
However, switching oils will require the industry to identify pollution from the whole lifecycle, meaning that the use of fuel is only one part of its environmental impact. Accounting for this will be crucial in finding a sustainable solution for maritime industry emissions.
Another solution that is easier to implement than changing fuels is a practice called slow steaming. Slow steaming simply refers to slowing boats down, sometimes only by a few degrees. While it may not sound like much, changing a ship’s speed by a couple of kilometers can result in an 18% increase in fuel savings, which could be a gamechanger. However, industry leaders are worried that simply slowing down ships is not the answer, since it will result in a need for more vessels to keep the global economy moving.
Other energy-efficient solutions to reduce maritime industry emissions include route optimization, renewable energy such as wind-assist technology and transitioning to all-electric ships. Norway, a main exporter in the petroleum and fish industries, has already tested an all-electric vessel and is actively working to optimize this technology to transition more ships away from fuel oil.
Time for Maritime Industry to Go Green
The effort by the maritime industry to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is significant. Effective solutions to help curb climate change include transitioning to low sulfur fuel oils, changing ship speeds and investing in new technology such as renewable energy. However, consumer awareness will also play a vital role in the future of international shipping. The cost of a global economy is significant. Finding more sustainable methods of transporting goods across the ocean is imperative.
Cities can only run smoothly if all of the parts that build them up are working together. The road maintenance part of the municipality has the difficult job of keeping roads safe and functional, even if crashes or accidents have occurred. Here are the four things every city must do to ensure all of the residents are safe and the roads are open for use.
Clear Problem Reporting Services
It’s vital that if a giant pothole or a bridge is damaged, the city can be notified as soon as possible. A general hotline for the area is helpful, but so is a website to report issues and request area maintenance. The residents in the area pay to live in a safe and well-maintained area through their taxes. You must show that you’ve heard them.
An essential part of any road maintenance system is that it’s responsive and gets the information across clearly and promptly. Poor road maintenance can lead to car crashes, accidents, and injuries.
Repair of All Sudden Damage
Sudden damage, like a vehicle cracking the foundation of a bridge, a road that’s damaged, or trees that have fallen onto a major street, is all things that have to be repaired quickly. Well-run municipalities will quickly assign workers, find a fix that will work, and will set to the job of putting that plan into action. Although it’s not easy work to do, the faster the plan is put into action, the fewer people and pieces of property will get injured.
Roads deteriorate and age with time. Municipalities must work to create roadways that stay safe as possible for as long as possible. This plan could mean refinishing pavement that’s older, filling in potholes, widening car lanes, and putting down fresh guideline paint. Urban planners should also take into account the cost of full depth reclamation.
In most cities, this construction runs from May through October, but in some warmer states, it can run year-round. This type of work is especially vital for constantly hit areas with natural disasters, storms, earthquakes, or fires. If a roadway is poorly maintained in the middle of an emergency, it can cost lives.
Clarity With Residents
If there are going to be delays in certain areas for a few weeks, or if the city is looking at repairs that may inconvenience residents: it’s essential that this information is put out there. People get angrier if they feel like they’re being lied to or tricked than they would if the correct information was given to them in the first place.
Make it clear when and where repairs will happen to show that the municipality is taking it seriously, and residents can plan around the delays and traffic issues.
No two municipalities are the same, but these steps will help ensure that most small towns can have a lower accident and injury rate.
For fleets and their managers, money spent on fuel makes up a majority of any team’s budget, and recent fluctuations in price meant that a massive effort was needed to try and keep things from completely breaking the budget. In this article, we will look at three ways your fuel spending can be better managed. Broadly speaking this can only be done in two ways, consume less fuel or find a cheaper fuel source. The next question then is how?
Analysis of Driving and Duty Cycles
While the debate still rages on about what the next generation of fuel there are methods to reduce current fuel spending costs. Typically these costs are sensitive to drive and duty cycles, this implies that analysis of said cycles can result in a possible reduction in costs if done right. With advancements in technology including GPS tracking and data harvesting analyzing either a driving cycle or the overriding duty cycle is made far easier than most would expect.
Data that is generated by modern technology can even be used to predict savings in adopting technology like real-time driver tracking which can then be used to offset the expected return of investment technology adoption typically entails. Further, data taken in real time will assist in determining future costs associated with duty cycles even in the event of a freak weather event as an example.
Never Forget the Basics
Adoption of new technology is certainly one way to reduce costs, but it is also important not to forget the basics. Things like maintaining proper tire inflation, reducing vehicle weight, reducing potential rolling resistance, getting drivers to practice passive idle reduction, and most importantly maintaining vehicles properly are tried and tested ways fuel costs can be reduced.
If the fleet manager wants to dive even deeper into similar ways to reduce costs, newer vehicles often include computer-governed powertrains. This allows for the powertrain to be made more efficient by mapping power delivery curves and transmission shift points via the onboard computer for improved fuel consumption.
Modifying Driver Behaviour
No matter where you are based drivers are your most important asset and getting them to adopt better behaviors on the road can be one of the best methods to reduce fuel consumption. Be it in Colorado or charlotte trucking relies fundamentally on the driver in question. Fleet managers across the globe have found great success in reducing costs. Here again, the technology used to analyze driving and duty cycles and be used to track driver behaviors.
Modern tracking systems not only provide GPS data but data pertaining to the overall condition of the vehicle. Specialized fleet management systems like CameraMatics not only provide GPS data but data pertaining to the overall condition of the vehicle. This data can be used to determine problem driving areas and subsequently corrected.
While the world waits on a new fuel source to come to market cheaper than what we currently have, the best method is to reduce fuel consumption that threatens to blast a hole in any budget. Above we have seen three fleet fuel management methods to do so with some of them requiring little to no capital expenditure.
The 2020s are a time of transition for the global economy. In addition to a switch from manufacturing to services as the central component of business activity, the decade is ushering in an era of environmentally aware entrepreneurs, owners, founders, and consumers. Everybody, from the most powerful mogul down to the modest retail buyer in a discount store, realizes the importance of building a sustainable planet and economic system.
In the transport industry, telematics systems are helping fleet managers reach peak efficiency and meet strict emissions standards at the same time. Homeowners are finally reaping the benefits of solar energy after decades of slow growth in the alternative energy sector.
A long list of smart devices is bringing conservation to offices, houses, and apartments. Following the trend, automakers are rolling more all-electric and hybrid electric vehicles off the assembly line than ever before. Consider the following environmental trends among private citizens and business owners.
Transport Fleets Using Telematics
Transport companies are using sophisticated telematics systems to meet emissions obligations more effectively. Managers who operate government fleets in California must follow a precise set of guidelines related to smog checks. Compliance is required, but supervisors understand how telematics systems can minimize vehicle downtime while adhering to the smog check rules during routes.
Not only do telematics programs help government fleet management teams keep expenses low, but they’re also invaluable in transmitting a wide variety of information and statistics about every truck in real time. Without the technology, California’s emissions rules could deal a serious blow to government fleet profitability.
Solar Panels for Roofs and Yards
Homeowners have plenty of choices when it comes to solar energy resources. The industry has advanced significantly in the past decade as efficiency levels for panels has risen steadily. Along with more productive rooftop panels, one of the newer offerings from sellers is ground mounted solar. Some homeowners either can’t place units on their roofs or prefer to double up by putting them on the roof and in the yard.
Ground panels need to be mounted on special brackets so they can be easily moved whenever needed. However, the option to include more coverage in a given property can nearly double the amount of electricity available from private solar arrays.
With electric cars being the more sustainable choice in both the public and private sectors, there’s an ongoing transition to electric vehicles. For large corporations, the switch to all or partially electric fleets can save vast sums. The same is true for municipal, state, and federal government vehicle fleets. Individuals have had access to EVs (electric vehicles) and PHEVs (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) for more than a decade.
But in the 2020s, consumers and companies are finally making a major transition to energy-efficient transportation. There’s national legislation that incentivizes automakers to offer more non-combustion cars, trucks, buses, vans, and motorcycles by 2030.
At the same time, consumers are buying e-bikes, driving less, opting for public transportation, and carpooling more than ever before. Companies that sell and rent e-scooters in major metropolitan areas have had to increase purchases from manufacturers just to keep enough inventory on hand for unexpected surges in consumer demand.
By now, everyone living in the UK should be aware that by the end of 2030, non-electric passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will no longer be sold, imported, or manufactured in the country. Even though the plan seemed quite ambitious at the time of its announcement in 2020, recent stats tell us a different story altogether.
Excellent Sales Numbers Indicate Willingness to Welcome the Shift to EVs
According to data revealed by the UK Transport Department, the electric vehicle (EV) industry generated 173.5% more revenue during Q3, 2021, as compared to Q3, 2020. By the end of 2021, not only did the EV sector manage to sell the number of cars they needed in order to meet the necessary adoption curve, but they also exceeded their annual target by 60,000+ more electric vehicle sales.
These stats and figures more clearly indicate that people in the UK are both aware and willing to take the road needed for creating a more sustainable future for everyone. That being said, not everyone is ready or willing to support a shift to EVs yet. There are several social, economic, and political factors behind their unwillingness to adopt an electric car. Some of those causes are very real hurdles that the government hopes to overcome in the coming years.
Alongside other serious obstacles in the path of incomplete understanding of an EV’s benefits is a core problem that must be addressed. We are often informed that an electric vehicle is the more sustainable choice, but that statement is seldom explained properly. Whether you already own an electric vehicle or not, this post will help you understand why and how EVs are indeed the better choice for a cleaner, sustainable future.
Preparing for a Future without Fossil Fuels
More recently, the European Union (EU) has also declared its plans to slowly phase out fossil fuel vehicles by 2035. While we don’t yet have details regarding how they plan to go about it, it’s another step in the right direction. Despite the tremendous effort and investment it will take to create and maintain an automotive industry that’s not primarily reliant on fossil fuels, relevant governing authorities are still planning to go through with it. If successful, the entire movement will be tantamount to ushering in a new industrial revolution.
However, when multiple world governments decide in favour of reducing their dependence on non-renewable energy sources, the deeper implications are there for us to ascertain. People were running out of coal and petroleum from the very first day they started using it, but that time was still set in a very distant, vague future. As a result of globalisation, overpopulation, and over industrialisation, our energy consumption needs have increased beyond all previous estimations. Furthermore, that need continues to grow unchecked in several parts of the world. Consequently, we are now dangerously close to putting a date on a dystopian future!
It would take decades to build a reliable, new infrastructure that can effectively replace/reduce the need to rely on fossil fuels for an entire demographic. When the world finally runs out of easily accessible sources of fossil fuel, a well-developed alternative fuel industry must be present to keep us from reverting to the dark ages. Therefore, preparations to move away from non-renewable fuel sources must start now.
In conclusion, it can be said without a doubt that electric cars are the more sustainable and practical choice because that choice helps in building an infrastructure capable of surviving a future without easy access to petroleum. If we focus on the fact that running out of fossil fuels is an inevitability and not just a possibility, the current push towards adopting EVs begins to make a lot more sense.
That shift does not have to be difficult for anyone in the UK, although it may seem like a confusing change to many. Visit ElectriX to learn everything you need to learn about electric vehicles and find a good lease on your favourite model. They will even help you find cost-efficient insurance policies for your new EV. Leasing electric cars is the smarter choice right now because between now and 2030, EVs will improve exponentially with each passing year. A lease makes it much easier and more economic to shift to a newer, better, and more energy-efficient model, every time you need to.
Decreased Contribution to Air Pollution
In 2020, the Covid-19 lockdowns reduced vehicle usage across the world. Just a few weeks of decreasing traffic saw nitrogenous air pollutants plummet down to unforeseen percentages in the UK, Italy, China, India, and pretty much the entire world. It was confirmed by NASA in 2021 that the earth’s ozone layer also started to repair itself during those same periods. Given that the ozone layer protects us from extremely dangerous and highly carcinogenic cosmic and solar radiation, that was a startling discovery for the scientific community. Despite the core reason behind the environmental improvements being a very undesirable and unfortunate one, these events did manage to reveal some undeniable facts in plain sight.
It seems that just a few weeks of reduced traffic can lead to massive improvements in air quality, climatic conditions, and even ozone repletion. Therefore, we can only imagine how positive it would be for the environment if we shifted permanently to electric vehicles. Over time, even the infamous London smog can be eliminated if the majority of all vehicles running on its streets did not emit toxic fumes anymore. It should also be noted that regular exposure to urban smog is officially documented by the European Environment Agency (EEA) as a confirmed reason for killing over 400,000 people in Europe every year.
One may argue that electric cars have electric batteries, and they will contribute to the growing problem of dumping electronic junk in the future. It’s also true that electric cars are not completely emission-free either. In other words, EVs contribute to environmental pollution as well. This is, in fact, one of the chief arguments against adopting electric cars. However, that argument is not as valid as it may seem initially. The fact is that transportation across all formats is essential, and it cannot be stopped.
Therefore, the choice is about how we decide to power our vehicles and not whether we should be using vehicles. This leads us to an obvious comparison of available choices. Despite EVs also being responsible for harming the environment to some extent, that harm is almost negligible compared to the negative environmental effects of any vehicle running on fossil fuel.
Furthermore, we are close to reaching the peak of efficiency with combustion engines. This means that there’s not much that science can do at this point to make a traditional car engine more efficient than it is right now. On the other hand, we have only scratched the surface of what we can really do with electric car motors. In just a few years, electric vehicles will have more efficient, yet powerful electric engines, which will pollute even less than they do now. In other words, the electric vehicle is not just an eco-friendlier choice, but it is also our next step in automotive evolution.
There have been many revolutions in the engineering of passenger vehicles. First, in the late 1800’s came the automobile. Less than twenty years later, the first consumer car, the Model T was put into production. Over time, engineers kept improving cars and made them faster, safer, and better for the environment. Just a decade ago, cars that operate just as well as traditional fuel burning models began hitting markets around the globe. Every year these cars keep getting better, and it looks like they are the future of transportation. ElectricVehiclesHub.com is your best guide to electric vehicles.
1. Green On the Streets and in Your Wallet
The appeal of an eco friendly vehicle is pretty obvious, when you take a look at how much money owners save on fuel costs. According to a report from Business Insider Americans in some states spend an average of over $1,300 per year on fuel alone. If you are the victim of a car accident, contact Philadelphia Injury Lawyers P.C. for a free consultation!
Internationally, many countries such as Canada have introduced extra taxes on fuel inefficient vehicles. Some countries, including Norway, Germany, and France have all proposed banning the sale of new gas powered vehicles. It seems that many countries see the harm that burning fuel causes to the environment, and are willing to push consumers to more efficient and clean transportation options, such as gas or electric powered cars. The use of these as power sources has garnered criticism as to whether or not natural gas is a reliable renewable resource, but natural gas been proven to be just as renewable and green as electric hybrids of today.
Studies have proven that “greener” vehicles do not just save consumers in taxes and fuel though. Electric cars can save owners quite a bit of money over time in maintenance. Since electric vehicles tend to need less engine maintenance, the cost of repairs and upkeep drop drastically.
2. Safer Roads and Better Fuel Efficiency
Today the roads are full of electric cars. While they certainly are the future, every driver is surely interested in what comes next. With driverless cars increasingly entering highways around the world, it would seem that the future of efficiency is with automated driving.
According to an article in Forbes, driverless vehicles could reduce fuel consumption in passenger vehicles by as much as 44 percent and 18 percent for trucks. That is an enormous impact for the environment. This reduction is due in part to the amount of time the cars are in use. With driverless cars, commuters could share vehicles and each passenger vehicle would spend less time idle, depreciating in value and wasting resources.
Self driving cars are already incredibly safe, and that is in part because they are programmed to strictly follow all traffic laws. According to a CNN report 90% of traffic accidents are caused by human error. These accidents could be reduced by fuel efficient driverless vehicles.
3. Making Your Current Ride More Efficient
Not all of us can afford to pony up the cash for a new electric vehicle, but that does not mean you can’t be more environmentally friendly with your current car or truck. There are plenty of ways to help make your vehicle and commute efficient. One simple way to reduce your use of fossil fuels is to minimize trips and idle time. If you sit in a drive through or traffic regularly, turn off your vehicle. The Environmental Defense Fund suggests turning off your vehicle if you idle for more than 10 seconds at a time.
Performing maintenance at scheduled intervals also keeps your vehicle in great condition, which helps it stay at its peak efficiency. Replacing spark plugs, keeping clean air filters in your car, and airing up tires to the manufacturer’s specified pressure can all improve your vehicles overall performance.
Please keep in mind that it is recommended to contact a car accident lawyer if you are hurt in a car accident. Your lawyer will gather the evidence and deal with your insurance company to ensure that you get the maximum compensation you are entitled to.
Lastly, driving fast consumes more fuel. Following the speed limit and posted directions, avoiding fast braking and acceleration, and using cruise control on the highway can help save on gas.
Sufficient biomass storage is necessary to accommodate seasonality of production and ensure regular supply to the biomass utilization plant. The type of storage will depend on the properties of the biomass, especially moisture content.
For high moisture biomass intended to be used wet, such as in fermentation and anaerobic digestion systems, wet storage systems can be used, with storage times closely controlled to avoid excessive degradation of feedstock. Storage systems typically used with dry agricultural residues should be protected against spontaneous combustion and excess decomposition, and the maximum storage moisture depends on the type of storage employed.
Consistent and reliable supply of biomass is crucial for any biomass project
Moisture limits must be observed to avoid spontaneous combustion and the emission of regulated compounds. Cost of storage is important to the overall feasibility of the biomass enterprise. In some cases, the storage can be on the same site as the source of the feedstock. In others, necessary volumes can only be achieved by combining the feedstock from a number of relatively close sources. Typically, delivery within about 50 miles is economic, but longer range transport is sometimes acceptable, especially when disposal fees can be reduced.
Storage of biomass fuels is expensive and increases with capacity.
Agricultural residues such as wheat straw, rice husk, rice straw and corn stover are usually spread or windrowed behind the grain harvesters for later baling. Typically these residues are left in the field to air dry to moisture levels below about 14% preferred for bales in stacks or large piles of loose material.
After collection, biomass may be stored in the open or protected from the elements by tarps or various structures. Biomass pelletization may be employed to increase bulk density and reduce storage and transport volume and cost.
Biomass Storage Options
Feedstock is hauled directly to the plant with no storage at the production site.
Feedstock is stored at the production site and then transported to the plant as needed.
Feedstock is stored at a collective storage facility and then transported to the plant from the intermediate storage location.
Biomass Storage Systems
The type of biomass storage system used at the production site, intermediate site, or plant can greatly affect the cost and the quality of the fuel. The most expensive storage systems, no doubt, are the most efficient in terms of maintaining the high fuel quality. Typical storage systems, ranked from highest cost to lowest cost, include:
Enclosed structure with crushed rock floor
Open structure with crushed rock floor
Reusable tarp on crushed rock
Outside unprotected on crushed rock
Outside unprotected on ground
The storage of biomass is often necessary due to its seasonal production versus the need to produce energy all year round. Therefore to provide a constant and regular supply of fuel for the plant requires either storage or multi-feedstock to be used, both of which tend to add cost to the system.
Reducing the cost of handling and stable storage of biomass feedstock are both critical to developing a sustainable infrastructure capable of supplying large quantities of biomass to biomass processing plants. Storage and handling of biomass fuels is expensive and increases with capacity. The most suitable type of fuel store for solid biomass fuel depends on space available and the physical characteristics of the biomass fuel.
Electric mobility is the newest trend in today’s highly competitive market. Electric vehicles have already been defined as the future of transportation, and are on the increase. They are predicted to inevitably take over the car industry by the next decade.
Through technical innovation, e-Mobility is prepared to address today’s concerns linked with climate change, fossil fuel dependency, and environmental protection. Today, a slew of big auto manufacturers have not only begun building their own electric vehicles — alongside the industry’s pioneer, Tesla — but have also planned to discontinue the production of gas-powered vehicles in the next decades.
Vacuum technology has been – and still is – essential in this process.
Vacuum technology and mobility: a lifelong interest
Vacuum technology is not new in the mobility sector: it has been around for more than 60 years to support the creation and production of vehicle batteries.
It began as an industry-wide innovation and has been in use for decades. Despite this, it will continue to be utilized for many years to come, as it is still playing a huge role in the most recent e-mobility innovation.
Agilent, a supplier of vacuum and leak detection equipment and services, is dedicated to providing concrete solutions in the approach to sustainable mobility. It assists manufacturers all over the world in both the core, fundamental procedures of developing renewable battery technology and the secondary processes that are equally significant. Vacuum and leak detection technologies, for example, are important components in new industrial processes for vehicle electrification.
What is the role of vacuum technology in the development of electric vehicles?
Vacuum is already used in various functional stages and processes associated with electric mobility. From the electrolyte-filling stage of a lithium-ion battery (to ensure that the cell is evenly saturated with the electrolyte) to assisting in the shaping of the electric motor with constantly innovative generator technologies, to make them modular, lighter, more affordable, quieter, and more efficient. Agilent is involved in the development and production of a vast majority of electric vehicle components.
In addition to lithium-ion batteries, the most known and utilized rechargeable batteries, Agilent concentrates as well on the advancements in hydrogen fuel cells, one of the future trends for innovative technologies in electric vehicles.
What are lithium batteries?
Modern lithium-ion batteries are the favoured technology for electric vehicles right now. Unlike other batteries, lithium-ion batteries are among the most often used rechargeable batteries because they have a much higher energy density and a slow discharge rate, allowing them to maintain a charge for significantly longer.
They are innovative battery technologies that utilize lithium ions as a key component in the battery’s operation and electrochemistry.
Lithium-ion batteries, in addition to appearing in electric cars, can also be found in small portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones, and are frequently utilized in military and aerospace applications.
Vacuum Technology is driving electric mobility!
Vacuum is already used in various functional stages and processes associated with electric mobility. Let’s go deep together in the stages where vacuum is the dominant player.
1. Battery production: vacuum technology in more than half of the battery manufacture processes!
Agilent’s vacuum specialists assist lithium-ion battery manufacturers with their procedures and technological challenges in production processes, quality control, and safety measurements. As a result, they have been significantly involved in the development of electric mobility, with their vacuum tech currently accounting for more than half of the processes in battery creation.
Battery performance, longevity, and overall quality are all highly influenced by the quality of the manufacturing process. Agilent solutions and experience optimize resource usage and reduce process time while ensuring product quality goals are fulfilled.
2. Battery Cooling
As batteries get more efficient and powerful, car companies are being pressed to develop new heat management systems. Cooling systems must keep battery temperatures between 20 and 40 degrees Celsius. Liquid coolers have been shown to be the most efficient approach for keeping the battery pack at the proper temperature range.
The biggest disadvantage of liquid coolers is the potential of a leak or spillage. Undetected leaks significantly reduce the battery’s service life and/or allow highly reactive electrolytes to escape. Water leakage in battery coolers is a severe problem that affects battery durability and battery pack safety. To ensure long battery life, the cell must be completely leak-proof.
To confirm leak-proofness, a leak test is performed using a vacuum leak detection instrument, which can detect even the slightest leak using helium as tracer gas and detecting it by means of an embedded mass spectrometer. Highly sensitive helium leak detection systems play an important role in the production of lithium batteries and bear a significant amount of responsibility in terms of safety.
3. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems
There isn’t a heat-producing engine in an electric vehicle. Differently to low efficiency thermal engines, high-performance electric motors generate very little heat. The vehicle cabin temperature must be raised by other means. So, how do electric vehicles generate heat?
Well, it needs to produce interior heat using — you got it — electricity. Often via one or more resistive heating elements. Early electrical automobiles in fact employed basic resistive heaters, while contemporary vehicles have heat pump systems that transport thermal energy from the outside into the interior.
These technological HVAC systems necessitate extensive vacuum and leak detection solutions in order to create strong and dependable components capable of successfully capturing and directing heat. Look at how the leak-proofness is tested here.
4. Electric motor
Electric vehicle manufacturers research innovative motor/generator technology to make them more modular and efficient, lighter, quieter and even cheaper than typical electric motors. Water is the principal enemy of electric and electronic parts, hence leak detection and humidity tightness are an absolute priority in all of them. Agilent helium leak detectors enable faster and more exact leak location and monitoring for completely sealed electric vehicle motors.
5. Electric and electronic components
The operating range of an electric vehicle is not just determined by battery capacity. New materials and procedures are being applied to manage higher voltage, temperatures, and insulation difficulties in order to improve the efficiency of a car’s internal electrical distribution.
In propulsion-grade power electronics, inverters, connections, filters, busbars, and safety devices all play important roles.
Insulating or environmental coatings are required for all of these components. Agilent is proud to supply diffusion and turbomolecular pumps for innovative coating equipment. Browse the Agilent website to find the best turbopumps and turbomolecular pumps.
Fuel cells are another zero-emission alternative to combustion engines and even to lithium batteries. This intriguing technology works with hydrogen gas: hydrogen is employed in fuel cells to generate power through a chemical process instead of combustion, with just water and heat as byproducts. Hydrogen reacts electrochemically in fuel cells to produce electricity and power the car. Brake energy is also absorbed and stored in a battery to offer extra power during short acceleration occurrences.
To prevent leaks that could impair performance and safety, fuel cell generators, gas tanks, and distribution lines must be hermetically sealed and leak-checked by means of specific leak detectors. Vacuum technology and processes also play a key role here.
Future Trends for Green Technology in Vehicles
According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, by 2040, more than half of all built and sold passenger cars will be electric. As public concern about climate change grows, governments throughout the world are stepping up efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Agilent is committed to supporting this change by providing the finest, more innovative and performing vacuum technology equipment and machinery.
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